Edward Ellerker Williams's "Sporting Sketches"

Sporting Sketches during a Short Stay in Hindustane

Edward Ellerker Williams

Edited by Tilar Mazzeo

The following transcription comprises pages 5-115 of the Williams-Trelawny notebook, listed by the Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, as MS Shelley adds.e.21. Along with MS Shelley adds.c.12, also included in this edition, it comprises Edward Ellerker Williams's complete travel journal to India. It is here published in its entirety for the first time.

Editorial Procedures:

Numbers in brackets [ ] at the beginning of each page break indicate the manuscript pagination; in all other cases, brackets indicate an editorial addition or deletion, typically notes. One point of confusion for modern readers may be Williams's use of the colon [:], which he uses as a modern author would employ a hyphen [-], both to indicate divisions in words interrupted by line breaks and to hyphenate compound nouns and adjectives. Throughout, I have retained the punctuation of the original MS, leaving spelling and punctuation irregularities unaltered; underscoring has also been reproduced as in the original. Cancellations in the manuscript have been indicated, when legible, by a line through the letters; when the cancellation cannot be read, I place arrow brackets [< >] with a cancellation line of the approximate length between them. Williams titled each page of his notebook in a header, and these have been represented, in italics, at the beginning of each page break.


"Sporting Sketches during a Short Stay in Hindustane,"
by E.W.

[5] Leave Minst
March 1st, 1814.
spacerA long state of senseless
inactivity, made worse by
sickness both of frame and
mind strengthed the
desire I had for some
time nourished of revisit:
:ing England, and the war
on the Continent together
with the hopes that a
cold climate might
restore a constitution
evidently impair'd by a
short residence in India
determin'd me in this
spacerLeave of absence was
easily procured through the
kindness of my friend

[6] Delhi
Colonel Westenra, and
as the snows on the
mountains had not
yet melted sufficiently to
render the Ganges com:
:fortably navigable I
set off on a visit to
Delhi, as well to pass a
few happy hours with a
much esteemed friend, as
to loiter away time at the
Imperial City.[1]
spacerDelhi, the nominal
capital of all Hindöstan
was once the pride of
Asia's Monarchs, but now
presents a strange mixture
of falling greatness, and
wretched poverty.[2] The
Palace still affords a

[7] Delhi
faint idea of its ancient
splendour; and that
little which does remain,
I was concerned to observe,
is allowed gradually to
decay, as many magnifi:
:cent edifices around
have done, into disregarded
spacerDelhi is a city of
considerable antiquity.
Shah Jëhan was, I believe
the first Emperor who
made it his residence, to
avoid it is said, the heats
of the City of Agra, indeed,
by some of the higher orders
of natives, Delhi, is better
known by the name of
Shah Jëhanaband, though
Indraput was its more

[8] Delhi
ancient name.[3]
In its present state
it may be said to be
about seven miles in
circumference, the streets
in general extremely
narrow, and like all other
Eastern cities extremely
filthy.[4] To the left of the
Town as you approach
from the river from the
river Jumna, are the
remains of many splendid
palaces, with baths of
marble, the beautiful mosaic
work of which, has been
much more defaced by the
plundering hand of man,
[than] the mould'ring one of Time.[5]
spacerThe shapeless heap of

[9] Ruins of the ancient City
ruin here, is incredible—
far as the eye can reach,
nothing presents itself but
desolation, and the toute
ensemble more resembles
the wreck of an overthrown
Empire than the destruction
of a City.—[6] I had once
occasion to pass through these
ruins at midnight—
Every thing around was
still—the moon shone un:
:usually bright, and as I
carefully wound with my
friend Fraser as a guide,
thro' the intricacies of this
vast wilderness, it awoke
no unpleasing reflection at
the instability of human
affairs—how fall'n these

[10] Goorjahs
monuments of kingly pride?—[7]
Where is all the hum of
this once populous city?—
I confess I was not a little
pleased to view the glitt'ring
Lamps of the Town; for as
we had no guide guard, &
being unarm'd should have
prov'd an easy prey to the
horde of robbers who infest
this dreary spot. These
Goörjahs as they are termed
may be considered as a
distinct race of beings from
the inhabitants of the City,
with whom they are at per:
:petual war.[8] Thro' the vigilance
of the police however they
are considerably diminished,
but these ruins still afford

[11] Mosques
a hiding:place to every
outcast villain, in which
Delhi—Imperial City!
spacerNear these ruins there
still remain in tolerable
order, many superb mau:
:soleums, but the tomb of
the Emperor Hamaiöon is
most worthy notice— Of
this tomb, I perhaps had
heard too much in praise
of its beauty to be particu:
:larly struck by it, for I con:
:fess I was infinitely more
pleased with the Jumnä
Mosjid, or principal mosque
of Delhi. The view from the
minarets of this mosque is
uncommonly grand— It is
situated nearly in the centre

[12] The Palace
of the City, and the surrounding
country flat and fertile to
the Eastward— to the West:
:ward ruinous and deserted,
with the winding and rapid
Jumna dividing, as it
were these strange extremes.[9]
spacerI visited the Palace
one morning when the King
was at the Coötub:Minar
attending a religious cere:
:mony called the Mohürrum,
and all the rigidly:righteous
Mussülmäns had of course
accompanied him, more
thro' form than from any
devout motives, so that
the court seem'd quite de:
:serted.[10] Here then I had an
opportunity of looking around
unobserved, for I was only

[13] The Palace
accompanied by an old
Priest, who seem'd as anxious
to shew as I was sanguine
to observe these abodes of
Eastern Royalty. I saw
indeed—here Time and
civil wars have made sad
ravages, and it was dis:
:gusting to contemplate the
corruption and degeneracy
from those principals of
Monarchy which mark'd
the ancestors of this weak
man—Every thing around
appeared to be indolently
neglected, without even a
struggle to bear up against
the misfortunes which have
from time to time been
heaped upon this <—> now

[14] The Palace
degraded race of Timur.
A kind of cold gloom
pervaded my whole frame,
as I followed the old Priest
thro' the long and dark
galleries of this once mag:
:nificent court of Mogül Sültans.
spacerWhen we came to the
Audience Hall, the old
man exultingly pointed out
the separate beauties of this
superb chamber. It is
built after the Hindöstanu
style of Architecture, much
resembling our ancient
Gothic structures, is of
highly polished white
marble supported by carved
square pillars of the same,
delicately gilded, and inlaid

[15] Audience Hall
with precious stones of
various colors, fancifully
arranged into wreaths of
flowers, medallions, and
birds of variegated plumage.
The ceiling appear'd to be
a persian carpet interwoven
with gold, and round the
arches was hung in festoons
a persian curtain, of
crimson and gold, presented
by Marquis Wellesley, and
only drawn in close durbar.[11]
In the centre is erected a
Throne, or block of black
marble raised about two
feet from the floor, about
eight feet long and six
broad—the floor of white
marble, and over the whole
is spread a richly embroidered

[16] Audience Hall
persian carpet.[12]
spacerWhile admiring this Fairy
Scene, the old man was
extremely eloquent in re:
:lating the brilliant abilities
of the statesmen of other
days—here said he where
we stand is the spot where
the old King Shah Aülum
had his eyes put out.
and this continued he
as we entered a costly
bath (corresponding in
beauty with the chamber
we had just left) where
he was dragg'd and left
bleeding, not only to de:
:plore the loss of sight, but
to lament the loss of a
crown wrested from him, by
the hand of merciless sedition.

[17] The haram
From this chamber we pass'd
through another gallery, and
arrived at the Private Ap:
:partments, or, royal Zenanah,
where the old man begg'd in
vain I would not enter.
spacer—On I went (but without
my guide, who stood mu
mumbling at the door)
pass'd a second room, and
came to one tolerably fur:
:nished; a third part of this
was divided by a crimson
curtain, (the much talked
of Purhdäh) and peeping
behind, I discovered as
female as ol old and ugly
as age and debauchery could
make her, sitting cross:leggd
upon a mat near the bed,

[18] The haram
which had silver feet and
raised about a foot from
the ground, with a covering
of crimson and gold, and
a number of pillars of
the same stuff, with beetle
, uts-däns, and pigdä:
:nis scattered about in all
directions &.[13]
spacerThe range of apartments
beyond this one brought very
forcibly to my mind, the
gloomy cells of a monas:
:tery, being destitute of all
finery, at least as far as
I could discover, and
seemd better intended for
those religious votaries,
whom bigotry and supersti:
:tion have doomed to the
cloister, than for the haram

[19] The haram
of an Eastern Monarch.
spacerHere the girls enjoy all
the comforts of close impris:
on:onment which Native
jealousy can impose, and
yet after all the supposed
security of iron:grated win:
:dows and brass doors
Intrigue has even found its
way through these, in defiance
of their strength. If such
precautions, together with a
most vigilant suspicion,
can effectually preserve
the chastity of Delhi's black:
:eyed maids, Heav'n knows,
they must be true to Delhi's
Lord—! but this is a Country
where points of this kind are
not over scrupulously observed
among Ladies, and 'tis even

[ 20] The haram
necessary <—————————>
spacerI retired from the curtain
a good deal disappointed, but
not without going to the
window at the end of the room
which overlooked the gardens
—On looking down I observed
several females old, and
young sitting á conversatsione
immediately under me. I

[21] Nadir Shäh's Mosque
was soon discovered by the
younger ones, most of whom
with a wild laugh skipped
away, while the elder ones
more modestly drew their
doputtah (or veil) more
closely around. Fearful
of the alarm my intrusion
might occasion, I hastily
join'd and retreated with my
old friend, who was not
backward in rebuking
me. but the silver soon
allayed both his fear and
spacerOn my way home I stop'd
at the Mosque of Nadir Shäh,
so called from his having been
convey'd to the top of one of its
minarets that he might the
better behold the massacre

[22] Dreadful Massacre
in 1739 in which above One
Hundred Thousand
of the
inhabitants were slaughter'd.[15]
This mosque is interesting
enough on account of its
antiquity, but not particularly
so on any other accounts.
spacerOn my arrival at the
Residency I looked into the
History of this unfortunate
Country, which indeed is little
more than one long, and
dreadful narration of bloodshed,
of treasons and assassinations.
Take the following abridged
account of it from "Dow's
spacerThe first invader of this
country, India, whose ex:
:pedition is authentically re:

[23] History &c
:corded, was the famous
Alexander of Macedon.
Zingis K'han also directed
his force thither in the year
1221, and the Emperor forsake
his Capital. Long before
Timur, or Tamurlane, descen:
:ded in the female line from
that conqueror, Mahommedan
princes had entered, made
conquests and established
themselves in India. Walid,
the sixth of caliphs named
Ommiades, who ascended the
throne in the 708 year of the
Christian ara, and the 90th
of the Hegira, made conquests
in India; so that the Korän was
introduced very early into this
country.[17] Mahmoud son of
Sëhbegtechin, prince of Gazna

[24] History
the capital of a province sepa:
:rated by mountains from the
north:west parts of India, and
situated near Kandähar, car:
:ried the Korän with the sword
into Persia Hindoöstan, in
the year One Thousand or
one thousand and two of the
Christian ara.[18] He treated
the Indians with all the
rigour of a conqueror, and
all the fury of a zealot, plun:
:dering treasures, demolishing
temples, and murdering idol:
:aters throughout his route.
The wealth found by him in
Hindoostan is represented to be
immense. The successors of
this Mahmoud are called the
dynasty of the Gaznadines, and
maintained themselves in

[25] History
a great part of the countries
which he had conquered in
India until the year 1155, or
1157, when Kosron Shäh, the 13th
and last prince, of the Gaz:
:naride tribe, was deposed by
Kussans Gaurï, who founded
the dynasty of the Gaurides,
which furnished five princes,
who possessed nearly the same
dominions as their predecessors
the Gaznadines.[19] Scheäbbedin,
the fourth of the Ganride em:
:perors during the life of his
brother and predecessor
Garathedïn, conquered the king:
:doms of Moultän and Delhi
and drew from thence prodigious
treasures.[20] But an Indian who
had been rendered desperate
by the pollutions and insults

[26] History
to which he saw his god and
temples exposed made a vow
to assassinate Schëabeedin,
and executed it. The race
of Gaurides finished in the
year 1212, in the person of
Mahmond, successor and
nephew to Scheäbbendïn, who
was also cut off by the swords
of assassins.[21] Several rel
revolutions followed 'till the
time of Tamerlane, who
entered India at the end of the
year 1398 descending more
terrible than all its former
inundations from the centre
of the northern part of the
Indian Caucasus. This
invincible barbarian, met
with no resistance sufficient
to justify, even by the Military
maxims of Tartars the many

[27] History
cruelties with which he mark'd
his way. But after an im:
:mense slaughter of human
creatures, he at length ren:
:dered himself Lord of an
Empire, which extended from
Smyrna to the banks of the
Ganges. The history of the
successors of Tamerlane, who
reign'd over Hindoostan with
little interruption more than
356 years- has been variously
represented; but all writers
agree; that they were magni:
:ficent and despotic princes,
and that they committed their
provinces to rapacious go:
:vernors, or to their own sons,
by which their empire was
often miserably torn in pieces.
At length the famous Au:
:rungzëbe, in the year 1667, tho'

[28] History
the youngest among many
sons of the reigning Emperor,
after defeating or murdering
all his brothers, mounted the
throne of Hindoöstan, and
may be considered as the
real founder and legislator
of the Empire.[22] He was a
great and a politic prince,
and the first who extended
his dominion, though it
was little better than nominal
over the peninsula within
the Ganges, which is at pre:
:sent so well known to the
English. He liv'd so late as
the year 1707; and it is said
that some of his great officers
of state were alive in the year
spacerIn 1713 four of his grand:

[29] History
:sons disputed the Empire,
which, after a bloody struggle
fell to the eldest, Manzoldïn
who took the name of Jehänder
Shäh.[23] This prince was a
slave to his pleasures, and
was governed by his mistress
so absolutely, that his great
omrahs conspired against
him, and raised to the throne
one of his nephews, who struck
off his uncle's head. The
new Emperor whose name
was Furrusk'hsër was gov:
:erned and at last enslaved
by two brothers of the name
of Seyd, who abused their
power so grossly, that being
afraid to punish them publicly
he ordered them both to be
privately assassinated.[24] They

[30] History
discovered his intention, and
dethroned the Emperor, in
whose place they raised a
grandson of Aurungzëbe, by
his daughter a youth of 17
years of age, after imprisioning
and strangling Furrukhsir.
The young Emperor proved
disagreeable to the brothers,
and being, soon poisoned,
they raised to the Throne his
elder brother, who took the
title of Shäh Jëhan.[25] The
rajahs of Hindoöstän, whose
ancestors had entered into
stipulations, or what may
be called paeta conoenta,
when they admitted the
Mogül family, took the
field against the two
brothers, but the Latter were

[31] History
victorious, and Shäh Jëhan
was put in tranquil possess:
:ion of the Empire, but died
in 1719. He was succeeded by
another prince of the Mögul
race, who took the name of
Mohummed Shah, and enter'd
into private measures with
his great rajahs, for destroying
the Seyds, who were declared
enemies to Nizam al Moöluk,
one of Aurengzebe's favorite
generals.[26] Nizam it is said
was privately encouraged by
the emperor to declare him:
:self against the brothers,
and to proclaim himself
Soubah of the Deccan, which
belonged to one of the Seyds
who was assassinated by the
Emperor's order, and who

[32] History
immediately advanced to
Delhi to destroy the other
brother; but he no sooner
understood what had hap:
:pened, than he proclaimed
the Sultän Ibrahim, another
of the Mogul princes, Emperor.[27]
A battle ensued in 1720 in
which the emperor was vic:
:torious. He is said to have
used his conquest with
great moderation, for he
remitted Ibrahim to the
prison from whence he had
been taken; and Seyd being
likewise a prisoner, was
condemned to perpetual
confinement; but the Em:
:peror took possession of his
vast riches. Seyd did not
long survive his confine:
:ment; and upon his death

[33] History
the Emperor abandoned him:
:self to the same course of
pleasures that had been so
fatal to his predecessors.
spacerAs to Nizam, he became now
the great imperial General,
and was often employed
against the Mahrattahs,
whom he defeated, when they
had almost made them:
:selves masters of Agra and
Dehli. He was confirmed
to his soubahship, and was
considered as the first sub:
:ject in the Empire. Authors
however are divided as to
his motives for inviting
Nadir Shäh, otherwise Kouli
K'han, the Persian Monarch,
to invade Hindoöstan. It
is thought that he had in:
:telligence of a strong party

[34] History
formed against him at Court,
but the truth perhaps is,
that Nizam did not think
that Nadir Shäh could
have success and at first
wanted to make himself
useful by opposing him.
The success <—> of Nadir Shah
is well known and the
immense treasure which
he carried from Hindoöstan
in 1739. Besides those
treasures he obliged the
Mogul to surrender to him
all the lands to the west of
the rivers Attock and Sind,
comprehending the provinces
of Peyshor, Cabul, and
Gazna, with many other rich
and populous principalities,
the whole of them almost
equal in value to the

[35] History
crown of Persia itself.[28]
spacerThe invasion cost the
Mogul empire Two hundred
thousand lives. As to the
plunder made by Nadir
Shah, some accounts and
those too strongly authen:
:ticated, make it amount
to the incredible sum of 2 H'd
& Thirty one millions {231,000,000}
sterling! The most moder:
:ate say that Nadir's own
share amounted to con:
:siderably above seventy
millions. Be that as it
may, the invasion of Nadir
Shah, may be considered as
putting a period to the great:
:ness of the Mogul Empire in
the house of Timur. Nadir
however, when he had raised
all the money he could in

[36] History
Delhi, reinstated the Mogul
Mohummud Shah as the
sovereignty, and returned
into his own country. A
general defection of the pro:
:vinces soon after ensued,
none being willing to yield
obedience to a prince de:
:prived of all power to
enforce it. The provinces
to the north: west of the
Indus had been ceded to
Nadir Shah, who being
assassinated in 1747 Achmet
Abdallah, his treasurer, an
unprincipled man, but
possessed of great intrepidity
found means in the general
confusion occasioned by the
tyrant's death, to carry
off three hundred camels
loaded with wealth, whereby

[37] History
he was enabled, to put him:
:self at the head of an army
and march against Delhi
with fifty thousand horse.[29]
Thus was the wealth drawn
from Delhi made the means
of continuing those miseries
of war, which it had at first
occasioned. Prince Achmet
Shah, the Mogul's eldest son,
and the visier, with other lea:
:ding men, in this extremity
took the field with eighty
thousand horse to oppose the
invader.[30] The war was car:
:ried on with various suc:
:cess, and Mohammed Shäh
died before its termination.
His son Achmet Shah, then
mounted the imperial throne
at Delhi: but the Empire
fell every day more into

[38] History
decay.[31] Abdallah erected
an independant kingdom
of which the Indus is the
general boundary.
spacerThe Mahrattahs, a
warlike nation of the south:
:western peninsula of India,
had before the invasion of
Nadir Shäh, exacted a chout
or tribute from the empire,
arising out of the revenues
of the province of Bengal,
which being withheld in con:
:sequence of the enfeebled
state of the empire, the
Mahrattahs became clam:
:ourous. The Empire began
to totter to its foundation;
Every petty chief, by counter:
:feiting grants from Delhi
laying claim to jaghïres &

[39] History
to districts. The country was
torn to pieces by civil
wars, and groaned under
every species of domestic
misery. Achmet Shah
regned only seven years,
after which much disord:
:er and confusion prevail'd
in Hindoostan and the
people suffer'd great cala:
:mities. At present the
imperial dignity of Hindoostan
is vested in Shah Aulum
Zadah, who is universally
acknowledged to be a true
heir of the Tamerlane race;
but his pow'r is feeble; the
city of Delhi, and a small
territory round it, is all
that is left remaining of
the house and heir of Timur, who

[40] History
depends upon the protection
of the English, and whose
interest it is to support
him, as his authority is the
best legal guarrantee of
their possessions.
spacerWhat a tale of rapine
and of blood have we just
passed over———
"Auri sucra fames quid non
spacermortalia pectora cogis."[32]

[Pencil Sketch here.]

March 3d 1814.
spacerAs Masons when in ad:
:verse circumstances gene:
:rally look for relief to those
of their fraternity, so have I
observed when schoolfellows
meet in remote parts of the
globe, they are irresistibly drawn
together from the herd of their
assembled countrymen, and
seem to claim, as a right a
certain attention from each
other; whence this feeling
springs I know not, unless
from the pleasure we derive
in going over with another,
the scenes of other days, but
so it was at Delhi, for the
resident Mr. Metcalfe no
sooner heard I was an

[42] Shalimar
Etonian than I was invited
to his house at Shalimar.[33]
spacerThis splendid residence
at Shalimar, which signifies
Garden of Delight, is situated
about seven miles from
the City. The gardens were
laid out by the order of the
Emperor Shäh Jehän, and
though not more than two
miles in circumference, are
said to have cost one
million sterling in rich &
profuse decorations, and to
have been nine years in com:
:pleting.[34] Two traces of what
it was are now to be seen,
nor indeed can imagination
well conceive what it could
have been, though within

[43] Shalimar
the last two years Mr. Metcalfe
has not been unsuccessful
in his <e—> exertions to restore
some of its natural beauties.
Nearly in the centre of these
grounds he has erected a
villa, truly classical, and
this style of building, together
with the chaste architecture
of the outhouses, assist, very
forcibly to recal the one so
beautifully described by
Pliny, after whose model
the virtues of Mr. Metcalfe
seem moulded, and when
seated in his favourite room
that overlooked the grounds
I have often imagined he
presented no inadequate con:
:ception of that great and
good man. I staid here

[44] Shalimar
several days, seeing everything
that could interest, was
received with all possible
civility and magnificently
spacerIt was one evening that
I happened to be seated near
Fraser when our conversation
turn'd upon the subject of
Tiger hunting, and as I had
never seen any sport of the
kind, I was anxious to glean
every particular from so
able and experienced a nar:
:rator. I knew not at the
time we were conversing
whether my inquisitiveness
might not have been un:
:pleasant to him, as, however
willingly he gave answers to
all I asked yet he was so

[45] Leave Shalimar
backward in leading the sub:
:ject, that fearing to offend
I for some time suffer'd it
to decline into almost un:
:broken silence. At length
however, asking how long I
purposed staying at Delhi,
he hastily left the room, and
returning rather late, told me,
that having heard of some
game, if I would undertake
a trip to the jungles, and
accompany him home that
night, he would set:off for
Rhotuk the following mor:
:ning and endeavour to shew
me Sport.—
spacerI took leave of Mr. Metcalfe
the following morning, and
proceeded to Fraser's house,
where every order was given
for the intended excursion.

[46] Preparations
Elephants, Horses, Tents and
indeed every thing on the
grandest scale, were dispat:
:ched <—> at day break
towards Rhotuk, and to me
who had not been accusto:
:med to such expedition, the
sight of so large a cavalcade
in motion, appeared the effect
of magic.
spacerHowever to allow time
for the camp equipage to
reach the appointed spot
it was necessary to remain
the whole of the next day at
Delhi, which was employed
by me (a perfect griffin) in
casting balls, and cleaning
guns, and during these ope:
:rations fighting in imagination
with every tiger in the upper

[47] Fraser's Garden
provinces. In the evening
with a mind still harping on
this subject, and while wal:
:king with Fraser through
his extensive garden, my
astonishment, indeed, I can:
:didly confess my alarm, is
not so easily described as felt,
in having these scenes con:
:verted to strange reality; for
in walking thro' a wild and
beautiful shrubbery, and at
some distance from the house,
from behind a thick bush,
out sprung—— an uncommon
fine Tigress, and galloped
playfully by me to a small
patch of high Indian corn—
where she again couched down
and was again put up as

[48] Tame Tigers
we approached— I stopped
short, and looking earnestly
in Fraser's face, to discover
the meaning of all this, but
he sauntered on, eating some
fruit with the greatest un:
:concern— I certainly follow'd
but not without most cau:
:tious apprehension, which
he enjoyed for some time, but
soon laid aside by his in:
:forming me that she was quite
— He had two
others confined, that were
once allowed to roam at
large, but now grown ex:
:tremely savage. They had all
been deprived of their teeth
when very young, and their
claws so cut as to prevent
any serious mischief from

[49] Tame Tigers
an accidental scratch
when their playfulness might
become too serious. The
disposition of the Tiger is so
very treacherous, that I did
not entirely overcome, those
queer sensations of surprise
produced by her sudden ap:
:pearance, until I saw her
take a diff'rent direction, not:
:withstanding the assurances
of Fraser, and the manner
in which she had been disarmed.
It is the excessive violence
of the blow from the fore paw
of a Tiger, that is to be dreaded,
the teeth and claws only
perform a second part, and
death might be the consequence
from the former, without the
assistance of the Latter.

[50] Leave Delhi
March 7th
spacerLast night I could
dream of nothing but Tigers,
so powerfully had yesterdays
adventures, and the accounts
of Fraser's feats among them,
operated on my mind. At
day break we were join'd by
Lieutenants Eliott and
Hewett of the 8h Dragoons,
and Lieut Young of the 27th
Native Infantry, when moun:
:ting our horses we all set
off for Rhotuk, at a brisk
gallop, that we might reach
Bahadurgen before the sun
got warm.[35] Here we break:
:fasted and remained during
the greater part of the day,
as well to avoid the meridian
heat, as to refresh our horses.

[51] Rhotuk
and at Sunset arrived at
Rhotuk, sometimes on the
way, passing through the
most intricate Jungles, the
track of the Elephants and
camels over the moist places,
serving to guide us. We
found the Tents pitched on
a small plain, near the ruin
of a Temple to the left of the
Town, which was once emi:
:nent, but now ruinous.
spacerRhotuk is situated upon
a rising ground, about 80
miles north:west of Delhi,
the surrounding country is
extremely wild, and gloomy
jungles on every side. Near
the town is a large mound
of earth, thrown up, it is said

[52] Rhotuk
over a heap of bodies of the
slain, in some considerable
battle which was here fought.
but how many years since
tradition does not say.
Upon which account I am
induced to believe it must
have taken place many
ages—perhaps centuries
since, as the natives are, in
generally tolerably exact
in their chronology. It is
now impossible to trace over
whom this mound is erected,
but that it was raised to
commemorate some savage
chieftains slain in battle
I have no doubt, and with this
consideration, I walked, or
rather climbed to the top

[53] Rhotuk
and indulged in a pleasing
train of reflections, which
are naturally suggested to
the mind, in contemplating
these remains.
March 8th
spacerEarly this morning a
party of Native Horsemen,
with a number of Volunteer
Sporting characters from the
Town were dispatched in dif:
:ferent directions to get
intelligence of any game, that
might be on the move, while
our time was employed in
receiving visits of ceremony
from the neighbouring
great men, who had heard of
Fraser's arrival among
them, and came to pay homage
—or was loitered away in
inspecting Elephants—Howdahs

[54] Rhotuk
Ropes &ce. and as Evening
drew on, our eyes were straind
in vain with hopes of
discovering a returning
Horseman; for in this im:
:mense expanse of jungle,
to beat for game generally
proves an useless labor, for as
both Lions and Tigers wan:
:der much during the night
from haunt to haunt,
frequently miles distant—
Lions particularly—-
March 9th
spacerAt day break we mounted
our horses, and gave the
hawks a walk. I will
here endeavour a slight
idea of this delightful Sport
though I must acknowledge
the inadequacy of my pen as
pen for such a subject.

[55] Hawking
It was a most charming lovely
morning, and followed by
the hawkers we proceeded
to the plain. We were soon
directed by the screaming of
a curlew to the little spot of
marshy ground where he was
feeding, and Fraser taking
a hawk on the fore:finger
of his right:hand cautious:
:ly approached him. the
party keeping at a small
distance in the rear. The
moment the curlew took
flight, the hawk's hood:wink
was slipped off, but dazzled
by the sudden light she
flutter'd for a short time
over his hand, but soon
recovering she flew rapidly
after the curlew, whose long

[56] Hawking
wings but sluggishly flap'd
about a yard from the
ground as if unconscious
of his danger, but he no
sooner saw the hawk than
his g flight gradually in:
:creased in a diagonal di:
:rection to amazing swiftness,
which we endeavour'd by
spurring to keep pace, that
we might be near at the
fall—the hawk follows
and gains on the poor
curlew, who screaming ascends
more perpendicularly—
the hawk seeing this mark'd
him at once for her prey,
and striking off to the right
winds soaringly round him
with incredible velocity lessen:
:ing the circle as she ascends;

[57] Hawking
—both ascending are at length
lost in the immense height
and seem but two small
specks. The screaming of
the curlew is faintly heard
even at this distance—he
continues to ascend, and the
hawk persevere's in her
spiral motion, until she
has gain'd the upper flight,
then hovering makes a pounce
swift as lightening on the
exhausted curlew, and closing
her wings both fall together,
until within thirty or forty
yards of the ground, when
opening them she is by the
resisting air brought upper:
:most, and saves by this
means her tremendous fall,
the panting curlew resigning

[58] Hawking
without a struggle.
spacerShould the hawk on
making her pounce, miss
the bird, if wild, she gene:
:rally takes off in a diff'rent
direction, and is seldom
heard of more, though during
our stay at Rhotuk, one
of the hawks was missing
for nearly two days, and
returned to the camp while
the others were feeding.
spacerThe hawk generally in
use, is, I believe, known
among Falconer's, as the
long:wing'd hawk, of which
there are ten 10 kinds—of the
smaller or short:winged
only eight. I did not see
enough of them to give a
particular description, but

[59] Hawks —- Curlews
the females I think are only
used by Sportsmen.
spacerThe Curlew, here mentioned,
differs wildly from the one
found in England, is about
the size of a large fowl, its
figure more resembling the
snipe, with a bill much
longer and more arched
than that birds,—its color
a shining black, with a
few white spots at the ex:
:tremities of the wings, and
on the top of its head a
beautiful ornament of a
bright scarlet, in substance
not unlike the wattle of a
cock, long legs, and par:
:ticularly fine eyes.
spacerThe curlews at Rhotuk
are very numerous, and

[60] Hawking
heard screaming over the
ruins at all hours of the
day, but more so morning
and evening. Our first
flight this morning affor:
:ded us a gallop, at speed,
for nearly four miles on
end. This sport is not
altogether without danger,
for it being necessary to keep
the eye stedfastly fixed on
the birds, every other con:
:sideration for self, or horse
are laid aside. But one
of our party proved self
alone to be his consideration
in a little occurence
which happen'd during the
run. Hewett was a good
rider and uncommonly well
mounted, and proved the

mettle of his horse, by taking
the lead for a long time,—
'till at length a high and
prickly fence presented
itself, which it was rather
awkward to clear, as the
ground was broken and
sloped on each side, and
in attempting it, I know
not how it was
he fell, and
laid much at his ease on
the opposite side— "I hope
you are not hurt Hewett."
Said I still looking at the
birds—and galloping on—
"Curse that brute" he ansd
"there will be no catching
him to day; but do you
think if I walk to the tents
I shall be in time for
" ?—

[62] Rhotuk
We had only time to fly
another hawk when the
sun became too warm and
drove us home to a sum:
breakfast. This
may astonish the reader who
has never quitted England,
but in India unlike any
other country, a man al:
:ways travels with every poss:
:ible comfort, and we seemed
to be as much at home in
the Tents in these inhospitable
looking wilds, as we should
have been in the centre of
the city of Delhi—the only
difference, a canopy of
canvas, than a roof of brick
or timber, with a preference
to the former.
spacerThis breakfast of

[63] Rhotuk
which Hewett was so anxious
to share, was one adapted to
our Sporting apetites, and
composed of some substantial
dishes—such as beefstakes—
Mutton chops—fish &ce
which dishes generally com:
:pose an Indian breakfast.
spacerDuring this meal an
enquiring glance was cast
at every one who entered the
tent. When a horseman arrived
with the news of a Tiger that
had just killed a bullock
about three miles from
our camp.
spacerThe order was instantly
given to "tïar kurroh," (to
prepare,) and in about half
an hour the cavalcade was

set in motion.[36] The man
who had brought the intelli:
:gence, went first as a guide
followed by a detachment
of horsemen; then came the
five sporting Elephants with
Howdahs into which we
ascended; these were follow'd
by seven others, mounted
by Spearmen to beat the
Jungle, while another Elephant
was dispatched to cut
forage; and last a crowd
of fellows closed the march
each declaring what feats
his countrymen should
witness! but "unlike their
sires of old" long before we
had reached the spot not
a hero was to be seen—
spacerDuring the march

[65] Going Out
we were all repeatedly cautio:
:ned not to be confused when
the Tiger should be roused,
but to take a steady aim—
How vain this caution! for
what young Sportsman
spacer"in the madness of delight"
can be composed when the
angry Tiger

spacer"shakes his sides
spacer"Slow:rising from his Lair, and stretches
spacer"His rav'nous paws, with recent gore

spacerWhen we arrived, the horse:
:men were so placed as to
encircle the supposed den, &
some of the followers were
sent up the higher tr trees, to
see which road the animal
might take if he broke cover.

[66] Tiger Hunt
spacerThe Elephants were ranged
in a firm line, equi dis:
:tant, with a Sportsman on
each flank, and an Empty
Elephant between each of
the others. The order of
battle being thus arranged
we proceeded carefully pre:
:serving the line, until one
of the Elephants on the left
near me, shewed evident
signs of uneasiness, and a
little onward the stench of
the lair was almost intol:
spacerIt is impossible to convey
an idea of my sensations
as we slowly entered the
den—the wildness of the
scene—the solitary expanse
of jungle, which hems you

[67] Tiger Hunt
in on all sides,—no human
habitation, or trace of man
for miles around—the
awful silence, and steady
look of your companions,
at times interrupted by the
low murmuring of the Elep:
:hants—the antelopes and
spotted deer breaking thro'
the underwood, together with
expected attack render the
scene quite awful—
spacerNothing possibly can be
more grand than when the
Elephant comes on the track
of the Tiger, which he discovers
by curling his trunk in the
air, or striking it forcibly on
the ground; making a kind
of sqweaking, trumpeting

[68]Tiger Hunt
noise; kicking the bushes
or shuffling with his hind
feet, always giving warning
by one of these signs of his
approach. The attention
of the Sportsman must be
wholly wrapt up in the ob:
:jects close before him, for
if the Tiger has lately gorged
himself, he will not be
roused until the Elephants
are close upon him.
The signal was at
length given by Young (who
was next to me on the left
flank) to close, which we
doing when the Tiger broke
with a terrific roar, and
galloped down the line,
where he got some severe
knocks, for I think Every

[69] Tiger Hunt
one had two or three shots
at him en passant. Fraser,
Young, and myself pushed on
to the place where he again
couched; he seemed extremely
savage—his eyes rolling, &
his tail lashing, with one
of his fore paws on a ladder
which had drop'd from my
Howdah, and which he had
nearly gnaw'd in two.[38] On our
approach he sneaked into
a thick bush, where we
mobb'd him, through which
he charged repeatedly charged
in most desperate style
"Thirsting for blood and eager to destroy"[39]
Foil'd in every attempt, he
at length fell, by a ball from
Hewett, thro' the eye,—while

[70] Rouse a lioness
clinging to Eliott's Elephant's
hind leg.
spacerThe empty elephants were
not unemployed, for while we
were dispatching the Tiger,
the Mohouts were shouting
at, and chasing something
which we could not distin:
:ctly make out, but as it
moving through the high
grass, and appeared by the
motion to be a large ani:
:mal, I fir'd and was in:
:stantly charged by an
uncommon fine Lioness.
I hit, and stopped her with
the other barrel, but my
Elephant being young at
hunting, turn'd, and went
off at an amazing rate, &
could only be persuaded to

[71] Kill a lioness
return to the field in time
to see the Lioness fall.
spacerAn Elephant taking fright
and running away, is one
of the most dangerous con:
:sequences attending a Tiger
hunt. Fear, 'tis said, magni:
:fies danger, which is di:
:minished as we approach
it, but with Elephants
it seems to increase as they
remove from the cause.
A frightened Elephant runs
blindly onward, over precipices
down wells—against trees—
or through villages, over:
:throwing and destroying every:
:thing by the way. In the
present instance I am not
surprised at the poor creatures

[72] An Elephant taking Fright
alarm, for the sudden
spring and roar, together
with the thundering volley
discharged at the lioness
was quite enough to frighten
her, a less reasonable animal,
and I found Fraser's cautious
remarks not altogether
unneccessary, for the balls
whizzed by me at a mer:
:ciless chance. My
servant who was behind
me that day, and not so
well defended, suffered
greatly from the blow of a
large bough that struck
his head; and gave rise
to serious apprehensions
for his senses, which as
they remain'd uninjur'd, at
least established the thick:

[73]Dimensions of the Tiger
:ness of a blackfellow's skull
and proves Lavater's assertion
of their superiority in point
of substance.[40]
spacerI took the dimensions of
the Lioness and Tiger, as

spacerspacerDimensions of the lioness
Lgth. of Tail
Lgh. of Body
Where Killed

11 [Hds]
9 ft.
Rhotuk Jungles
Mar 9th

spacerspacerDimensions of the Tiger
L. of Tail
Lg. of Body
Where Killed

12.3 Hds.
10.3 Ft
Rhotuk Jungles
Mar 9th

spacerThe tiger, or lion is
scarcely allowed to make his
last groan, (which the natives
by the by, take great care to
ascertain before they approach)

[74]Superstitious custom
when a fire of a few light'd
reeds is applied with many
curses to its whiskers, which
they are particularly cautious
effectually to remove,—As
I leaned over the Howdah,
observing this superstitious
ceremony, I enquired in
vain for the cause of it, but
was at length informed by one
of the servants of a superior
order, that the whiskers when
chopp'd up, and taken with
a little water, is considered as
a very subtle poison, by
which the suff'rer lingers
into the most deplorable state
of dejection, quite un uncon:
:scious of the cause, and
death alone can relieve him.

[75] The dead Tiger
This, he asserted with much
gravity, and endeavour'd to
convince by so many instances
of its horrid effects, that he
left me fully satisfied with
his own sagacity, and my
firm belief of all he had ad:
spacerAfter this ceremony the
Game is fastened on the back
of one of the Elephants and
conveyed to the tents; here
it is soon surrounded by
the villagers who insult it
with obscene jests, and every
opprobrious epithet. Each
recounts his loss, and the
cattle which has been
missing for miles aroun around

[76] The Tiger
is always laid at the door
of the last killed, and the
village rings for months
afterwards of his attrocities.
spacerTigers may be found
in every kind of Jungle, but
I think they prefer grass,
particularly those small
patches near a thick
underwood, to which they
may retreat when alarmed
or wounded.[41] They generally
sleep during the day, unless
press'd by extreme hunger,
and their chief haunt, or
hiding place, is invariably
near some water. I have
heard from old Sportsmen,
that should a road run

[77] The Tiger
through the jungle in which
he ranges, he couches in
some thick covert, on the
opposite side to the one
where he has formed his
lair, so that on seizing his
prey he may instantly retire
to it. The Tiger never makes
a second spring, but on
missing the first, (as if cow'd)
he sneaks to his den until
all, is again silent, and then
prowls in a different direc:
:tion. Bullocks. Antelopes.
and Nyl Ghy's seem to be his
favorite food. and these
he always takes by surprise
as they pass his ambush.
spacerTheir bones may be seen

[78] The Tiger
scattered about in all
directions near his den,
where I have frequently seen
human skuls sculls and
other parts of the body.
spacerIn the Tiger when roused
there is a savage ferocity
not to be described, and
when dead he bears this
expression—his eyes glaring
—his mouth generally half
open, with a horrible grin,
and generally filled with
blood. I shall have oc:
:casion to make many
remarks on this animal
as we proceed—let us
compare him with the
spacerThis truly noble animal

[79] The Lion
the Lion, has but lately
been discovered by Europeans,
and <——> now, never to be
met with below Delhi, or
rather below Rhotuk. They
are generally found at the
commencement of the hot
winds, in that long tract
of jungle, formed on the
bord borders of the Bicka:
:neer desert, extending from
Rhotuk to Hansi, and
known among Sportsmen
by the name of the Lion
plains of Hurrianah.[42] It
is said they seek this low
country for water, of which
there is great scarcity in the
desert. Their dens are
formed in those thick

[80] The lion
kentah:bush:jungles, (resem:
:bling the thorn of the
English forest.) which spring
up with great luxuriance
round the small pieces
of water that lodge here
during the rains. When
the hot weather commences
these small pools quikly
dry up, and the grass in the
centre, growing as rapidly
to the height of four or
five feet, affords a cool
retreat, while while the
bushes, which are naturally
hollow at the bottom serves
to shelter them from the
wet, or the intense rays
of a meridian sun.
spacerThe Lion we are told

[81]The Lion
eats, only every third day;
how Buffon gain'd this in:
:formation I know not, nor
have I sufficient authority
for contradicting him—but
during our stay at Rhotuk,
the villagers daily complain'd
of the depredations committed
among their cattle; (one, or two
was missing every morning.)
<—-> now the lions were not
so numerous in this place
as to have caused such
considerable destruction—so
that if they were not press'd
by hunger to attack the
herd, it could have arisen
only from mere cruel wan:
:toness, of which the Lion
has not yet been accused.

[82] The Lion
spacerWhen attacked, or roused
from his sleep, he is furious
even to madness, and his
charge is much more for:
:midable than the Tigers;
and it is this undaunted
perseverance, which has
induced Sportsmen to con:
:sider him, as less worthy
their attention—for my
part I would rather meet
(in point of safety) two
Tigers, than one Lion single
handed—for if once wound'd,
he is seldom killed with:
:out bloodshed to his
opponents—the Elephants
of our party bearing
evident marks of this—
I have always observed a certain

[83] The Lion
calmness over the face (if
I may be allowed the ex:
:pression) when dead. In
a Lion hunt there is a
something formidable &
grand. without the sneaking
inexorable cruelty of the
spacerLavater speaking of the
structure of the head of the
Tiger, says "the pointed form
"of the hind:head, and the
"breadth of the forehead, are
"indications of a singular
"promptitude. How diff'rent
"its structure from beasts of
"burden and pasture—the
"disposition of the tiger is
"a quick perception and a
"gluttonous ferocity—the

[84] Tiger and Lion
"snout full of energy—the
"throat a vaulted abyss."
In comparing it with that
of the Lion—"the hind:
":head instead of being poin:
":ted is lengthed and ob:
":tuse, the fall of the bone
"of the snout is rapid and
"energetical, the forehead
"is compact, announcing
"energy, calmness, and strength.
"Had we originals before
"us it would be inter:
":esting employment to com:
":pare this part in detail
"with the head of the Tiger.[43]
spacerI have frequently had this
opportunity, and the diff'rence
(physiognomically) is very great,
tho' apparently very slight.[44]
The back of the head

[85] Tiger and Lion
of the lion is considerably
broader than the Tigers—
the under jaw much thick:
:er, the grinders (or hind
teeth) of which do not knit
together, as in the Tigers—
a greater breadth across the
eyes—the tushes or dog:
:teeth more rounded, and
the head deeper, or more
spacerThe distinction between
the Tiger and Lion, is (in
a Sporting view), as great as
between the Cat and Dog.
though the two former are
both classed under the felis
genus, having retractile
claws—I allude to dis:
:position and habit only.

March 10th
We were visited this
morning by a Chieftain,
or petty rajah, whose power in
upper provinces was once
considerable, but now dwindled
into into a "faithful few"
of followers, who endeavour
to support a certain appea:
:rance; but I could easily
discover the unequal
struggle between vanity &
poverty—for though misfor:
:tune had attacked this poor
fellow with her most ma:
:licious deeds, she could
not humble the pride which
had been fostered in the
presence of his Emperor.[45]
spacerHis name I now forget,
but he was without excep:

[87] Rhotuk
:tion the handsomest native
I remember to have seen. He
told Fraser, that unable any
longer to suffer the indigni:
:ties which were daily offer'd
by his upstart countrymen, to
his family while they remain'd
in Delhi, he had removed to
this remote place, where the
inhabitants received, and
honored him as their Chief.
He spoke highly of the English,
and related their conquests
with a most expressive look
of admiration. He brought
a number of presents, the
manufacture of his jaghire,
which were accepted by
Fraser, and among them, was
a matchlock of curious

[88] Rhotuk
workmanship, which when
Fraser begged me to accept
in remembrance of my
as he called him.
It often recals many pleasing
sensations in the recollection
of my unfortunate prince, but
they are now damped with
the painful one, that he
is no more.
spacerWhen the Chief had taken
his leave, and Fraser was
indulging us with his bed
melancholy history, we
were interrupted by the arrival
of a horseman, whose ap:
:pearance was doubly wel:
:come as it served to dispel
those feelings which are
naturally communicated by
the recital of such a tale,

[89] Attack a lioness & Young
and informed us of having
heard of a lion, whom the
natives, he said, dignified
by the appellation of a
"burrah haramzader"—[46] and
so indeed she proved, but for
they had mistaken the sex.
spacerOn our arrival at the
den, (which was near the
place the two last were
killed) we entered it in the
same manner we had done as
before, but were not long
troubled in looking for her,
for she met us in most gal:
:lant style, charging in the
most furious manner that
can possibly be conceived;
this ferocity was excited in
defence of her young, who
charged in their turn, and caused

[90] Lion hunt
great confusion—driving
us repeatedly from the jungle
spacer—A council of war was,
at length called, and it
was proposed to renew the
attack with redoubled vigor-
to keep the Elephants in
a close a line, and in this
way push through—Fraser
Hewett, and Young all de:
:clared they had seen, and
Hewett said he had been
charged by a Lion of enor:
:mous dimensions; at
last it was agreed that
Young and myself should
with four Elephants should
make a second party &
beat round—I will not
attempt to describe the con:
:fusion this plan occasioned.

[91] Lion hunt
the screaming of the Elephants
—the roaring of the lions,
which was augmented by a
fourth, that had come to
the aid of the others—the
repeated cries of "There She
goes"— pr and the tremendous
fire kept up, presented a
scene, which I leave to the
spacerThe lioness "with many
a wound gor'd thro' and thro'"
was the first to attack us;
we had scarcely gone ten
paces when she sprung upon
Young's Elephant, but was
soon dislodged—she retired
a few paces to her young,
spacer"with hot boiling rage
stung to the quick and mad with
wild despair"

[92]Lion hunt
we soon killed her—[47] The 2
cubs, about eighteen months
old, fell next; in killing
the last we were join'd by the
other party, who had dispat:
:ched the second lioness, and
were beating for the larger
one, but he continued to
make his escape in the
general confusion.—
spacerA great part of the after:
:noon was employed in beating
for the Lion, but without
success. But in going thro'
a slight copse on our
return homewards started
four Nyl Ghy's (or wild cows)
These animals are in appear:
:ance, exactly what we might
suppose would be produced
by the intercou intercourse

[93] Nyl Ghy
of the stag with the Cow. —Its
body and legs more resemble the
Deer:Kind, while the head,
horns and tail are nearest
to the cow. Is of a mouse
color on the back, and on
the belly inclining to white.
Is vicious when irritated,
and in habits not unlike
the deer—whose swiftness, it
equals, if it does not surpass.
—The natives have given
it the name of Nyl Ghy, which
literally signifies Blue Cow.[48]
Young made an excellent
long shot at the last, while in
the act of bounding a hedge.
spacerI am almost tempted to
observe, that the delight I
feel in going over these fields

[94] Rhotuk
in imagination, falls but
little short of the reality.
March 11th
spacerAt day:break took out
the hawks and killed threee
curlews, after some long
flights—Lost a hawk in
the last flight, in consequence
of the curlew making for a
tank (or pond) into which
it darted, and the hawk
taking a contrary direction—[49]
spacerIt seems that Providence
has instinctively supplied
them with this means of
escape, which it invariable
resorts to, when within its
reach; for if the curlew
makes for a piece of water,
the hawk increases her

[95] Rhotuk
speed in hopes of seizing its
prey before it can reach [50]
its safety place of safety,
but if she finds her speed un:
:availing she generaly hovers
over the spot for a short
time, and flies after the first
bird that goes by.—
spacerAfter breakfast went in
search of a Tiger, against
which the natives had made
sad complaints—but he had
left the jungle before our ar:
:rival—on our way home
shot a spotted deer.
spacerThe ground to the Westward,
undulating—sandy soil—low
Koutah jungle, interspersed with a
beautiful shrub bearing a white
flower of great fragrance. In

[96] Rhotuk
this direction a great quantity of
Game of an inferior kind may
be found. It is said the
Bustard is sometimes seen
here, but they are very shy, &
baffle all attempts to get
near them.
March 12th
spacerAbout a mile from Rhotuk [52]
a little to the right of the Hansi
road, is a large patch of high
and almost impenetrable
thicket, of a most gloomy, &
uninviting appearance. A
place of this kind, and so
situated can not fail to
attract universal attention.
I know not how it happened
that none of our party ever
thought of entering and ex:
:ploring this dismal spot

[97] Ruins
as it was often the theme of
our conversation, and excited
much curiousity from what the
natives said concerning it, for
they all declared, and I am con:
:vinced confidently believed
the place to be haunted—and
they were well confirmed in
this superstitious belief, from
the reports of the inhabitants
of the City, from whom I have
often heard a long story of
the frightful noises that pro:
:ceed from the caverns, with
which it is undermined.
spacerRound the skirts of this
dreaded place, I have often
walked of an Evening, with my
gun, and generally contrived to
pick up two or three brace

[98] Haunted ruins
of partridge—peacocks, or
hares, with which it swarms;
but was always cautioned
by the servants not to think
of venturing inside as I
valued my life. This ad:
:vice was generally commu:
:nicated with a sidelong look of
horror at the jungle, for
which indeed I had but
little inclination, even if
it had been practicable, for
it is of all others the most
likely place for the haunt
of Tigers. It is said this
place is the site of the old
city of Rhotuk, which as I
before mentioned, was, many
ages since, rich, populous,
and flourishing, but now
according to the scriptural

[99] Haunted ruins
phrase is "become heaps, a
dwelling place for lions, a
desolation and a wilderness,
a place wherein no man
spacerAt day break this morning
we had been out with the
hawks and greyhounds, and
having had excellent sport,
had dismounted from our
horses, and were walking
homewards through a field
on the skirts of this dread place,
when our attention was sud:
:denly arrested by the footmarks
of a lion of uncommon size;
and as they lead from the
covert, we tracked them to a
considerable distance, when
we discovered, the print of 3

[100] Four lions chace
more, two of which, were a
little smaller, these were
crossed and recrossed, some
leading to, and others from
the jungle; at length we traced
them to the head and entrails
of a Nyl Ghy which from the
freshness of the blood, could
only have been killed a very
short time before our arrival.
spacerThis they had evidently
run down in chace, (I had
almost said by scent) which
fully convinces me, that
lions do not always seize
their prey, as Tigers, by sur:
:prise from ambush, but
when driven by hunger some:
:times trust to their speed,[54]
which is wonderfully great,
the whole of the party con:
:curring in this opinion, so

[101] Nyl Ghy
evidently established by this
strange incident. They had
apparently exerted much
force, in the last spring, which
seemed by the few short bounds,
imprinted in the wet ground,
before making it, to have
been collected into one grand
effort. The earth for about
six paces around the remains
of the NylGhy, was, in their
eagerness to devour it, scrat:
:ched into a perfect hole, so
that it was with some dif:
:ficulty we retraced the [55]
print of the feet to the thicket,[56]
and convinced of their having
entered it we returned home,
where every preparation was
made for war, though not
without much apprehension

[102] Preparations
for the consequences of attak
attacking them in this ter:
:rific retreat, and the danger
to which we should be exposed
if any of the Elephants took
fright. Many plans of
operation were suggested, often
agreed on, and often laid aside,
—many opinions offered and
rejected—for as it was an
important undertaking and
much, of course, was to
be said on all sides—but
kill them we must, all
cried; but how shall we
get at them, it was asked;
in that place they will defy
the devil— This caused the
difference, and like all other
disputes were every one
speaks and no one heard,
we had mounted the
Elephants without any

[103] for the attack
settled arrangement—and had
already arrived within the
precincts of enchantment
when it was proposed that
we should enter as usual, in
a line, well supported, by
beating Elephants—and the
command to devolve on Fraser.
and In this way we slowly entered,
without a word spoken, by any
one, indeed we were all too
much occupied in breaking
through the first wall of jungle,
which was not effected without
great labor;— The interior was
not quite so thick, though
it required great caution to
avoid the broken masses of
ruin, and the half:choaked
wells overgrown with a
th brambles, and rendering

[104] Attack the Lions
it extremely dangerous. It
was quite astonishing to
observe the manner in which
the Elephants proceeded,
selecting their way with the
utmost nicety. Fraser &
myself were employed in
breaking down, an immense
koutah:bush, which had
grown within the walls of
a house, which Time had
nearly buried, when a rustling
was heard at the extreme end, like
an animal endeavouring
to escape; (for we had blocked
the entrance)— We both fir'd
and were instantly charged
by a lioness, with a roar
that made "the forest tremble" [57]
—She seized an Elephant by
the hind leg, and tore it most

[105] Attack the Lions
unmercifully, but was at
length kicked off; and nearly
stunned by the blow,—she retired
again to the extreme end, where
with much difficulty we
beat up to her— Here she
laid apparently very weak,
but made a desperate effort
to escape; with her Eyes
dar "darting fire" and "swelled
with furious rage" at not
being able to effect a passage,
or rather at being baffled
in the attempt, by two balls
which I put through her
shoulder, the whole of her
fury seem'd directed at me,
which she was prevented from
venting, by a shot from
Fraser, who now became, in
his turn the suff'rer, for she

[106] Attack the Lions
succeeded in getting upon the
Elephants head, and so high
up that I was fearful she
would get into the Howdah.[58]
As for the poor Mohout, I gave him
up as a dead man, and so
indeed at the time I believe
he was, through fear. how
he escaped I know not—but
true it is, that altho' the
lioness appeared to be com:
:pletely upon him, he only
recieved a slight scratch
on the thigh.— I had now
run up along side him, but
Fraser with all the coolness
that marks his character,
begged me not to fire, as I
might injure the Elephant;
at the same time he placed
a double:barrell'd rifle to

[107] Attack the Lions
her head, which was nearly
blown off, when
spacer"Prostrate on the ground
"The grinning monster fell"—[59]
spacerFrom this scene we retired
without the jungle, to reload,
and endeavour'd to recover the
Mohout from the trance
into which the alarm had
thrown—a little brandy
(slily administered) soon
accomplished this, and the
fellow, who was realy brave,
mounted again, as cheerfully
as if nothing had happened,
vowing vengeance, and
mingling curses with ob:
:scenity, which is with them
a favorite abuse.
spacerDuring this time the shouts
of the party within, and the in:

[108] Attack on
cessant fire kept up, by them assured
us of their having started the
others. On re'entering, by the
old track, through the passage
my Elephant had before
made, I soon arrived at the
place where the lioness was
lying dead. but neither
threats or persuasions could
induce the Elephant to pass
this spot, which obliged me
to return and go through the
path Fraser had made. The
cries of Tally ho! and soul:
:inspiring Saväsch! were
now reechoed in all directions,
making these impediments
doubly vexatious. I was
cursing my unlucky stars
when I discovered Young, who
was loading his guns, and

[109] the Lions
muttering some strange in:
ch coherent sentences, which
sounded something like im:
:precations on the head of
Eliott, who had left him, and
was keeping up a tremendous
fire about a hundred paces
in our front. "There damn
him" said Young, "he's got
among them again,—by
Heavens you must look
out, for there has been the
devil to pay here—there are
a dozen at least—there
lies one—" We pushed on
to the centre without meeting
any thing, and here I stopped
to look round. It was the
wildest and most romantic
spot I ever saw—composed of

[110] The centre
of a thin underwood of the
Samailläh, a shrub in appea:
:rance not unlike the willow;
of a delicious medicinal
fragrance, (and I believe used
by the natives in fermentation)
These were interspersed by
small patches of the wild
jasmine, and rose, whose
white flowers bloomed in
modest contrast with the
beautiful gaudy blossom
of the jungle däk of a brilliant
scarlet. Near a rose bush,
upon a small hillock which
was covered with a long &
silken kind of grass laid Youngs
lion, which added much to
the widn wildness of the scene,
and inspired me with an
indescribable sensations of

[111] of the Den
delight blended with admir:
:ation. Milton somewhere
observes, that such scenes as
these, breathe into the senses
"Vernal delight and joy, able to sooth
"All sorrow, but despair."[60]
spacerThe recollection of this
spot, has touched a chord
which vibrates most pleasingly,
though not without a tender
melancholy, promoted by the
recoll reflection that the
sun which gilded those days
is set—Fraser! 'tis the re:
:membrance of the many
happy days, we have passed
together, that has led me to
dwell a moment to indulge
the view as I look backwards.
"The heart that moves me, is too much
"my master", and has made

[112] Kill a lioness
[me] neglect my companions.[61] I
stopped but to look round,
and then with Young, joind
the rest of the party, who had
killed a lioness and were
in chace of a fourth.
spacerThe line was lengthened—
she was soon found, and
killed rather tamely. —We
beat the jungle for two or
three turns more, and not find:
:ing anything worth killing, the
death hollo was given, but
it was long e'rr the natives,
could be persuaded to
venture within and then
only very cautiously, and
with a howling and noise
of martial music, that can
only be imagined by being
heard. The music as I have

[113] Dead Lions
most improperly termed it,
was produced by the combined
power of five or six long
brass trumpets, not the more
harmonious for being cracked,
tom:toms (or small drums)
Cymbals—and a kind of pipe [62]
known only in this country,
or may perhaps be in use
among the barbarians of
America. In this way the
host proceeded, their yells
and music becoming more
intollerable as they approach'd
—and by their assistance the
lions were drag'd out.
spacerOn the way home Eliott
and myself got a shot at
something that was sneaking
thro' the long grass, but at
what animal it was uncer:
:tain until our arrival at the

[114] Kill a Leopard
tents, when a leopard of
the largest size was
brought in, by a few fellows,
whom the hopes of reward,
offered for a lost spear,
had tempted to enter in the
spacerI know not if our ex:
:pedition to this place has
dissipated the spell of
demonism in which it is
bound; or whether the
Natives still observe it
with such superstitious
dread;—but for myself
I confess I left it with great
regret—nor did I during
my stay near this dark
abode, ever hear, or <—->
groan, or shriek, but have
often listened with delight to
the sweet song of the Bulbul,

[115] Leave Rhotuk
"In soft small notes, like one
spacer"that seem'd to mourn."— or
to the distant Faoo—whose
piercing cries, though full
of sad complaint are al:
:ways welcomed by the Sports:
spacerWe left Rhotuk, for
Delhi on the following morn:
:ing, after having killed, in
the short space of four days
—Nine Lions—A Tigress.
—A Leopard—a NylGhy, &
an Antelope, with a pro:
:portion of smaller game.


1 Presumably the Hon. Henry Westenra, appointed Lieutenant-Colonel in August 1813 (I, 328). See Robert H. Murray's History of the VIII King's Royal Irish Hussars, 1693-1927.

2 Throughout the account, Williams borrows liberally from various sources in travel writing, Eastern history, and poetry. His descriptions here of Delhi are taken from James Rennell's Memoirs of a Map of Hindoostan; or the Mogul Empire. All further references are to this edition. Rennell writes: "Delhi, the nominal capital of Hindostan at present, and the actual capital during the greatest part of the time since the Mohamedan conquest" (65).

3 Williams's source here is the travel history of W. Franklin, entitled The History of the Reign of Shah-Aulum, the Present Emperor of Hindostaun. All further references are to this edition. Franklin describes how, "In the year of the Hijerah 1041, (A.D. 1631-2), the Emperor Shah Jehan founded the present city and palace of Shahjehanabad which he made his capital during the remainder of this reign" (199). According to Franklin's account, "Indraput" is the Sanskrit name for Delhi (209).

4 Compare Williams's description with Franklin's account of Delhi: "The city is about seven miles in circumference" (200) and "the streets are, in general, narrow" (207).

5 Compare with Franklin: "Each palace is likewise provided with a handsome set of baths . . . paved and lined with white marble" (202).

6 Compare with Franklin: "The environs of this once magnificent and celebrated city, appeared now nothing more than a shapeless heap of ruins, and the country round about is equally desolate and forlorn" (210).

7 Presumably Lieutenant John Fraser, a fellow officer with Williams in the VIII King's Royal Irish Hussars, stationed in India. See Murray.

8 "Goorjah," or more commonly "Goojur," is defined in a nineteenth-century Anglo-Indian dictionary as: the "name of a great Hindu clan [in Northern India] . . . In the Delhi territory and the Doab they were formerly notorious for thieving propensities" (386). See William Crooke's Hobson-Jobson: A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words. All further references are to this edition.

9 This entire passage borrows heavily from Franklin's description, in which he writes: "the ascent to the minarets is by a winding stair-case . . . at the top the spectator is gratified by a noble view of the King's palace, the Cuttub Minar, the Hurran Minar, Humaioon's mausoleum, the palace of Feroze Shah, the fort of old Delhi, and the fort of Loni, on the opposite banks of the river Jumna" (204).

10 According to Crooke's Glossary, "Mohurrum" is the "first month of the Mahommedan lunar-year" (574), but the term refers more specifically to the Islamic rites of fasting and mourning celebrated by Shi'ites during the first ten days of the month, in commemoration of the deaths of Hussan and Hussain in 669 and 680 C.E. The rites are distinct from Ramadan, which is celebrated during the ninth month of the Hijra calendar.

11 Richard Colley Wellesley, Lord Mornington and First Marquis Wellesley (1760-1842), who served as governor-general of India from 1797-1805. As a colonial administrator, Wellesley may be credited with the expansion of British territorial control, which he achieved largely through strategic alliances with warring local factions. He was recalled to London in 1805 on account of his vast expenditures, many connected with his personal taste for luxury.

12 Compare with Franklin's account: "After entering the palace, we were carried to the Dewaun Khana, or hall or audience for the nobility, in the middle of which was a throne, raised about a foot and a half from the ground. In the center of this elevation was placed a chair of crimson velvet, bound with gold clasps, and over the whole was thrown an embroidered covering of gold and silver thread. A handsome samianah [canopy], supported by four pillars, incrusted with silver, was placed over the chair of state" (211). And later: "The Dewaun Khass, in former times, was adorned with excessive magnificence . . . the roof is flat, supported by numerous columns of fine white marble, which have been richly ornamented with inlaid flower work of different coloured stones; the cornices and borders have been decorated with frieze and sculpted work" (213).

13 "Beetle boxes" here refer to the containers used to store the "leaf of the Piper betel [plant,] . . . chewed with the dried areca-nut . . . by the natives of India" (Crooke, 89). Similarly, the "Pigdänis" or "Pigdaun" is an Anglo-Indian term for a spittoon; see C.A.M. Fennell's Dictionary of Anglicized Words and Phrases, 631. "Uts-däns" have not been further identified.

14 Efforts to recover this canceled passage through normal methods, including digital imaging, have been unsuccessful.

15 In fact, the mosque of Roshun Al Dowla, "the place where Nadir Shah beheld the massacre of the unfortunate inhabitants" (Franklin, 205). Franklin also provides this same casualty count, remarking that the Shah "put to death an hundred thousand persons" (205).

16 See Alexander Dow's The History of Hindustane, Translated from the Persian, first published in 1768. All references here are to the three volume 1812 edition. Dow translates the history of Firishtah, Muhammad Kasim ibu Hindu Shah, a central text for historians of Islamic culture in the Romantic period.

17 Rennell's history provides a brief account of this "Caliph Valid" (xliv); Dow's refers, somewhat enigmatically, to a "Chaled," descendent of "Osman" (I.34, 36); this may be the same person.

18 According to Rennell, "we find little more in Ferishta [Firishtah], save the histories of the empire of Ghizni (or Gazna) and Delhi" (xlii). Williams's account employs the latter term to designate the Gaznadine dynasty. Rennell also identifies "Mahmood," the son of "Subactagi" (xliv)—the rulers to whom Williams apparently refers in this passage.

19 For an account of Gauri and the Gauride dynasty, see Rennell (xlvii). "Kosron Shah" presumably refers to the last Ghiznavi ruler, "Chusero Shaw," cited in Dow (I.140).

20 Presumably the "Shab ul dien" and "Yeas ul dien," described in Dow (I.141, 148).

21 Presumably the "Mahomed Gori" described in Rennell (xlvii).

22 Williams's source here is probably Dow's history (I, lxxix and ff.).

23 An account available in both Dow (II, 279) and Rennell (lxiii).

24 Both Dow and Rennell offer accounts of this emperor "Firrochsere" or "Ferokheseer" and describe the influence of the "Syeds" at court. See Dow, II, 279 or Rennell, lxv.

25 These brothers are identified as Raffeih ul Dirjat and Raffeih ul Dowlat, respectively; see Dow, II, 279-80.

26 For an account of Mahommed Shah and Nizam-ul-Muluck, see Dow, II, 280.

27 Despite Williams's identification, details given here of the Nadir Shah are not included in Dow's history; a more likely source is James Fraser's History of the Nadir Shah. For information on this Ibrahim, for example, see Fraser, 56. All further references are to this edition.

28 Williams's source here is Dow (II, 285-300).

29 Several parts of this passage are taken verbatim from Dow's history. Dow writes, for example: "The provinces to the north-west of the Indus had been ceded to Nadir Shah," who "found means with the assistance of his own tribe in the confusion which succeeded the Shaw's death, to carry off three hundred camels loaded with wealth." See Dow, II, 310-11.

30 Compare with Dow's description: Nadir Shah "took the field with eighty thousand horses and marched to oppose the invader" (II, 311).

31 Williams here confuses Achmet Shah, with his son Ahmed Shah, who in Dow's account "mounted the thrown of Delhi" after his father's death. See Dow, II, 317.

32 In full "Quid non mortalia pectora cogis auri sacra fames?" ("Where will the hunger for sacred gold not drive the hearts of mortals?"), from Virgil's Aeneid, III, 56-7; a frequently quoted passage during the Romantic period.

33 Charles Theophilus Metcalfe, First Baron (1785-1846), who served as British Resident (ambassador) at Delhi from 1811-19; he later served as acting governor-general of India (1835-6) and governor of Jamaica (1839-42) and of Canada (1843-5).

34 Compare with Franklin's account of Shalimar: "these gardens, made by the emperor Shah Jehan, were begun in the fourth year of his reign, and finished in the thirteenth....These gardens were laid out with admirable taste, and cost the enormous sum of a million sterling; their present appearance does not give cause to suppose such an immense sum has been laid out upon them . . . . The extent of Shalimar does not appear to have been very large. I suppose the gardens altogether are not above one mile in circumference" (209-10).

35 These locations refer to present-day Rohtak and Bahadurgarh. These companions were, presumably, Lieutenant Henry Young and Coronets John Elliott and R.S. Hewett, listed in 1815, along with Williams and John Fraser, as officers in the VIII Hussars, all stationed in India under Colonel Westenra. Although Williams dates the journal's events to 1814, the absence of his companions from the list of officers in that year suggests that 1815 is more likely. See Murray, II, 707.

36 Allowing for differences in transliteration, Williams is correct here. See John Ferguson's Dictionary of the Hindostan Language.

37 Throughout this section of the notebook, Williams refers repeatedly to William Somervile's early eighteenth-century work, The Chace, A Poem. Somervile's narrative includes an extended verse account of Aurungzebe and of traditional Moghul hunting practices, and the poem was itself taken in large part from contemporary travel accounts. The lines Williams quotes here are from the third canto; see III.86 ("in the Madness of Delight") and III.240-5 ("And Hunger Keen, and pungent Thirst of Blood, / Rouse up the slothful Beast, he shakes his Sides, / Slow-rising from his Lair, and stretches wide / His rav'nous Paws, with recent Gore distain'd. / The Forests tremble, as he roars aloud, / Impatient to destroy"). All references are to the 1735 third edition.

38 Compare with Somervile, III.254-5: "Thine Eye-balls flashing Fire, thy Length of Tail, / That lashes thy Broad Sides."

39 Compare with Somervile, III.295: "Thirsting for Blood, and eager to destroy."

40 According to Lavater, "the scull of the Indian" is "infinately thicker" than the European skull, and indication that their "appetites are gross and sensual" (148). See George Grenville's translation of The Whole Works of Lavater on Physiognomy.

41 Williams's account of this tiger hunt, from manuscript pages 64-76, appears to have been based on the "Account of the Hunting Excursions of Asoph ul Doulah, Visier of the Mogul Empire, and Nabob of Oude," given by William Blane in his Cynegetica or Essays on Sporting Consisting of Observations of Hare Hunting. See Blane, 193.

42 As Williams's account suggests, Hansi is located several miles northwest of Delhi, en route to Rohtak. Hurrianah seems to refer to the present-day Haryana territory, located at the southern border of the Punjab district.

43 Williams quotes, with only very minor alterations, from Lavater's text, cited above; see Lavater, 97.

44 Compare with Lavater: "The difference, apparently slight is, nevertheless essential" (97).

45 Alluding at least generally to the biblical notion of the "saving remnant" of Israel, prophecied in the latter chapters of the book of Isaiah; the phrase may also be intended to evoke Milton's "fit audience find, tho' few" (Paradise Lost, VII.31).

46 Apparently Williams intends here the term "burra haramzehada," signifying in Hindi "big rogue." See Ferguson.

47 Compare with Somervile, II.478-9 ("with many a Wound / Gor'd thro' and thro'") and II.430-1 ("with hot-boiling Rage / Stung to the Quick, and mad with wild Despair").

48 As Williams indicates, the "Nyl Ghy" or, more commonly, "Nilghau" is an antelope native to the Indian sub-continent. See also Crooke, 621.

49 Williams writes "taking" over what was originally "took."

50 Williams writes "it" over what was originally "she."

51 A large bird of the genus Otis, similar in appearance to the goose and increasingly rare in England by the late 18th century.

52 Williams writes "Rhotuk" over what was originally "it."

53 Alluding to Jeremiah 51:43. Describing the destruction of Babylon, the King James translation reads: "Her cities are a desolation, a dry land and a wilderness, a land wherein no man dwelleth."

54 Inserted above this line, in hand two (Trelawny), is the phrase: "a long lashing gallop."

55 Inserted above this line, in hand two (Trelawny), is the phrase: "prick their."

56 Inserted above this line, in hand two (Trelawny), is the phrase: "forms or marl prints."

57 Apparently a reference to James Hurdis's poem The Village Curate. Hurdis describes: "Montague and Warwick, two brave bears, / That in their chains fetter'd the kingly lion, / And made the forest tremble when they roared" (124).

58 Compare with Somervile, II.481-2: "Swell'd with furious Rage, / Their Eyes dart Fire."

59 Compare with Somervile, II.486-7: "Prostrate on the Ground / The Grinning Monsters lye."

60 See Paradise Lost, IV.155-6, where Milton describes: "Vernal delight and joy, able to drive / All sadness but despair."

61 Not further identified.

62 "Cymbals" has been written over what was originally "symbols"; the hand cannot be identified.

63 The "bulbul" is a "species of the sub-family pycnonoti of the Thrush family, admired in the East for their song as the nightingale is in Europe." See Crooke, 175. The line quoted here has not been positively identified, but it may, in part, allude to Richard Polwhele's poem Sir Allan; or, the Knight of Expiring Chivalry. The third canto to Polwhele's poem describes a Eastern-style hunt with a Nabob, alluding specifically to Somervile's treatment of the subject in "sonorous lines" (III.672). The phrase "seem'd to mourn" appears in the description of the Twelfth Day feast, immediately following the hunting account (III.761).