An Uninteresting Detail of a Journey to Rome

An Uninteresting Detail of a Journey to Rome

That I may State matters of fact as they happen'd, I will begin with my own Sufferings in the Stage Coach to Brighton & however Insipid the Detail I am about to make may be yet will I do my best & hope the partiality of those Friends into whose hands it may fall will cast a thick veil over the defects & remember only those things that are worthy if any such there Should be —


on Friday September 14 [1787] we left London at 6 OClock in the Morning being a party of seven — viz Dr Bates & his Daughter & Friend Elliot Mr & Mrs Deveare Flaxman & self with my dear Diddy [1]  as far as Clapham where we parted — which Circumstance caus'd rather a Damp to my Spirits however we soon after arriv'd at Godstone about [...] miles from London where a good Breakfast set all to rights & we proceeded in Order — and all things well 'till about 2 O'Clock when I began to grow Marvellous hungry the which disease encreasing very fast & as it was 2 hours wanting to Lewes the place destin'd for our Dinner to the End that I might forget my troubles I sang all the Songs I could think of & some that I could not think of too Solo's Duets & trio's perhaps you'll say why did I not get something by the way indeed we did our best to that end but fail'd in our attempts the Inn keepers were all very cross that day & would not for love or money part with their meat unless we would alight and make a regular Meal — at length passing through a little Page 1v Village the good Dr took Compassion on my Sufferings & in Spite of the railings of an old woman he rush'd into her Pantry & got a small Sandwich which being divided into four parts afforded a mouthful to four of us Mr F[laxman] endeavour'd to get its fellow but could not succeed being sent back with what we call a flea in the Ear — at length being weary of Singing & finding that I could not by that means either charm away my hunger or tempt the viands from the Cupboards of their owners I gave over all hopes & soothed my Cares in Sleep as indeed I believe we did all 'till the word Lewes was utter'd by some one of the Party which rouz'd us in an Instant from that Lethargic State but alas! too late for me my appetite was affronted at its long durance & had totally left me but no matter the dinner we met with was a very poor one & we left the Place much disappointed & little Satisfied with the welcome it had given us I can answer for myself at least —


About 8 miles from Lewes we found Brighton & took up our Quarters at the Ship a very good Inn near the sea here Lyd saw the Ocean for the first time & would scarce believe but it was a fine green plain it being very Calm & almost Dusk & now began my perturbation about crossing this great Kennel [2]  —but before Page 2 I proceed let me ask forgiveness for my prolixity & selfishness for the first I have an Excuse to offer the Circumstances related happen'd in Old England and I feel already that I love to dwell on whatever brings to my mind that happy Land I forgive her for not feeding me when I was hungry as I deserv'd it for leaving her Port — but then my Husband! —

Saturday — after an excellent Night's Rest & eke a Breakfast — the Dr friend Elliot Flaxman Lyd & Self ventur'd in a little Skiff across part of the ocean to view the Packet Boat (which lay at some distance) & to chuse a Cabin for our whole Company to be together —

Now view us all (except Dr. B) for the first time in our lives on the Spacious Sea pretty rough also, one minute the head of the Boat pointing to the Skies & the next threatening to Plunge us in the Deep, here also my Talent for singing (small as it is) was my best Friend & kept away dismal thoughts of drowning we at length got on Board much pleas'd with our little voyage as also with the Ship which was a new one & prettily accomodated — Our heads soon became as windmills in full sail & in less than 5 minutes the Sea took full vengeance on poor me for having disturb'd her waves — Flaxman was also in a very bad way & Lydia pale as a Ghost we therefore made the best of our way into the little Boat & hasten'd to the welcome shore — the minute we set foot to Land we were all well again & remain'd Page 2v Some time on the Beach from whence we view'd the Beauteous Ocean without Despight but not without some Dread of what we were likely to undergo when next we trusted ourselves to her uncertain Motion as the Packet was not to set off till Seven in the Evening we wander'd about Brighton & saw the Prince of Wales house which is neat but rather in a poor taste [3]  we saw the Beaux & Belles of the Place — return'd to our Inn & din'd, and then began our Embarkation for the Continent — about half past five O Clock we got into the Ship's boat — (as before) & to do away Serious or Impertinent Reflexion we join'd a full Chorus in Thomson's fine Song of "Rule Brittania" and should have been perfectly merry all the way to the Ship but for some Company who got into the Boat a little after a Gentleman & Lady of some appearance & is generally the Case when Fashion made her approach Dame Nature modestly retir'd & with her Comfort her beloved handmaid —

we reach'd the vessel mute & pensive — scrambled to our Beds Immediately and as Immediately fell Sick we could not remain on Deck as it began to rain in about an hour the Boat return'd with more Passengers & before Eight O'Clock we weigh'd anchor — It Rain'd hard — Blew hard was a terrible rough Sea the wind full against us the Night dark & the Mariners not Knowing to what Port the vessel bent her way and in Page 3 this Situation, were we dying with Sickness tossing in our Beds all Complaining no one could assist another but the Dr. & he Comforted us all as well as he could There were Men groaning women moaning Children roaring & Flaxman Snoring no Consolation but Brandy & water for twenty four hours when they happily espied Land the wind having tack'd in our favor, which in a few hours drove us to the wish'd for Port Lyd & Self with the Dr. & Mr. Elliott got on deck as soon as we heard this welcome news, nor was the sight of the Sea & the word Thalases [4]  more acceptable to the weary army of Xenophon on their return to Greece than was the appearance of the Shore & the word Land to our longing Ears It was between 7 & 8 O Clock when a Pilot Boat came to meet us fill'd with Figures in red Caps & who at another time would almost have scared us with their near approach — to these Men did we commit ourselves, in their arms were we Convey'd on Shore & with joyful hearts did we scramble up the Beach & gain the Uncouth yet hospitable Inn held out for our Reception —


— To write a Description of this Place (Diepe) [Dieppe] would be Superfluous as I know a better Scribe has done it & to his Book will I refer the Curious [5]  suffice it for me to say that I here gloried in being born an Englishwoman — Orpheus sure was never heard of here. the Women Labor [6]  Page 3v the Men Smoke; and Strangers are astonish'd the Inhabitants seem chiefly poor & Dirty Honest and Civil — Farewell now to Comfortable Parlors Boarded Bedrooms & good small Beer but in exchange we have merry faces willing hearts & Novelty —  [7] 

after a Comfortable regale by a good wood Fire we Committed ourselves to the Care of Morpheus hoping to get rid of some of that giddiness which pervaded all our Faculties we took much delight the Day after our Landing in viewing the Sea break against this Beach in seeing the Ships enter the Harbour in examining a few Gothic Churches and an Old ruinated Castle which still rear'd its majestic head with honest Pride Conscious of her former Worth — [8] 

Tuesday Morning about nine O'Clock we bid adieu to our first French Friends when our Party separated in two Crazy falling down Cabriolets for good designs of which see the Drs Sketch book [9]  the Reins or rather Ropes of that we were in soon gave way but was as soon rectified by the tying of a Knot in about half an hour our Peace of Mind was again Interrupted by what still appears to me a dangerous Event on Coming to the foot of a hill our Postilion dismounted that he might lighten his horses as did the other but Page 4 as our Chaise was first Our Man Slacken'd his Pace to Gossop with his Companion leaving us to the Mercy of the Cattle which drove us & which would certainly have laid us in a deep ditch which ran along the side of the road but for Flaxman who was luckily not far distant from the Chaise & hearing our Cries ran immediately to the horses heads & thereby saved our Necks all this time the drivers were in high Gossop & our Brute when he saw what had like to have befallen us with all the sang froid of a frenchman said (ne bralez [braillez] pas il n'y a pas de risque) don't make such a Noise there is no danger Now in my own Opinion the Chance was much against us & thus you see Opinions differ all the world over — soon after this our Chaise got out of Repair again but this luckily happen'd near a Smith's Forge who made us a few nails & did some other necessary Matters & after a detainment of about half an hour together with the friendly assistance of Mr Elliot we continued our Route tolerably quiet & Intolerably Slow till we arriv'd at Tostes the place destin'd for our next Repast the door of the house open'd into a large Dirty Kitchen the good Landlady well knowing the meaning of our visit welcomed us by Immediately Crying out here is Cold roast Beef good Mutton Chops a fine young hare Beef a la mode &c pushing the Dishes into our very mouths we soon Silenced her Voiceferation by Choosing two or three Dishes we liked best of which we eat Page 4v pretty hearty and for which we thank'd & paid her & continued our Route to Rouen where we arriv'd about seven in the Evening after having passed through a very pleasant Country & over a fine Road lined with Apple trees &c some branches of which we pluck'd but found them very Sour —


the Entrance to Rouen is through a broad pav'd Road with large houses & trees on either side which seem'd to promise Airiness Cleanliness & Space but as soon as we had pass'd the Gate of the City we turn'd into narrow dirty Streets with no foot pavement & the scents enough to Poison any one not accustom'd to them Our disappointment was great however after a Nights Rest we search'd Rouen for her Curiosities [10]  the River Seine runs through this City to Paris Over this River is a Curious Bridge of Boats [11]  which attracts the Notice of Travellers for particulars of which see Flaxman's drawing Book as also for the Contents of the Cathedral — I took notice of a good picture in it over the Altar — the Nativity of Philip Champaigne which pleas'd me as did a monument to the Memory of Mareschal Brazine in a good taste [12]  — In this Church are the hearts of Henry 3d — Richard 1st and Charles 5 of Germany — John D[uke] of Bedford is Buried here In the Evening we all went to the Comedy the Orphelin Anglois a little moral tale decently play'd but the Opera of l'Orgon dans la Lune [13]  was execrable [14] 

On Thursday Morning we set off in two chaises but the different Roads we were oblig'd to take soon Separated us Dr. B—t— [Bates] towards Paris & Flaxman & I towards Navarre. Page 5 we stopt to Breakfast at Louviers saw the Church &c the first part of this Mornings Road Run by the Side of the Seine the other side being bounded by a high Ground — after Breakfast we rode through a fine {little} wood affording us very Picturesque views as to itself as well timely Surveys of the Surrounding Country — the Ground being in many Places very Hilly so that in the distance we caught views of the Seine winding round the hills & {then} loosing itself in little woods — we pass'd through the little Town of Evreux & soon after arriv'd at the Duke of Bouillons Castle at Navarre [15] 


we arrived at Mante [Mantes] about 5 OClock having pass'd through a Delightfull Country full of Corn fields & over a Charming good Road all the way — here we regal'd ourselves with Coffee & a little Saunter over the Bridge to view the outside of the Cathedral for we had not time to examine it within, as we wish'd to travel 4 Leagues further that night (a great favor done us by the Postilion) the structure of the Cathedral was beautiful its spire light & was at that moment of time Capp'd with a [. . .] purple & gold Cloud which serv'd as a rich Canopy the whole having a very Grand Effect —

we sett off & got to Menlan [18]  {to supper} where we found some very good stew'd Turkey & {hot} Bran[d]y & water we went to rest much Comforted & I hope not ungrateful for benefits receiv'd —


In the Morning we set off at 5 OClock — stopped to Breakfast at St. Germains a large trading City formerly the residence of the Court [of] Louis [...] and arriv'd at Paris about noon where we found the Dr & his Party except friend Elliot who had set off the Day before for London In the Evening Flaxman & I went to the Comedie Italien where by the by they speak nothing but French here we saw Maria Cosway [19] ; Mr. F also met with a Mr Smith [20]  who was on his way to Rome & to whom Mr Flaxman had been kindly mention'd by Mr Banks [21]  in London — Page 7v It was rather Odd to see how two People who had never seen Each other in their own Country should in the Space of a quarter of an hour & at a distance of near three hundred miles from it, meeting by Chance in a Box at the Playhouse know each other to be the same of which Each one had heard so much — but so it happened nor did their multitude of Questions & Answers deprive either themselves or me of good {fine} music or good Acting the latter being very Indifferent nor did the former soar, the Comedy was l'Enfant trouvée or Alexis, & the Entertainment was les Amours d'eté the music of this little Piece was by Gretry which with the piece it self was a pretty trifle, [22]  as there was no Coach to be got when the play was ended & the streets being abominably Dirty besides the great Danger of being run over, there being no pathway as in London, we thought it advisable to get into the first vehicle we could find & being luckily Plied we both enter'd a kind of Sedan Chair which goes on two wheels & is drawn by a Man and thus did we ride along in jumbling State stuff'd like — anything Else that is crammed into a case too small to contain it — It was sit Close and be quiet —

[The Louvre]

On Thursday {Friday} we went to the Sallon or exhibition at the Louvre and I am forced to own that this Collection of Art Especially in Painting far Exceeds that which is yearly Expos'd at Somerset Page 8 House [23] , One Picture in particular pleas'd me among many "the Death of Socrates" by Davids [David] It deserves the highest Encomiums of the most celebrated Artists nor did it droop for Approbation the Artist's Merits are not unknown and his Talents are to be display'd in the Dome of the New Church now building dedicated to St Genevieve the Structure itself is in a beautiful form the outward Decorations are pleasing & well Imagin'd it will be ornamented within with fine paintings and David's Dome will not fall short if I may Prophecy — Madam le Brun's Pictures pleas'd me as did many others Of the Sculpture I shall say only this there was merit but I have chosen my Artist in that line and am Partial —

We drank Coffee with Mr Byerly [24]  & return'd to our unworthy Hotel about Eight O'Clock — On Saturday Morning Early the Dr & his party set off for Lyons in the Coche d'eau [25]  but that being a wearisome Conveyance & our having been so short a time in Paris we determin'd to lengthen our stay in the Place & took our places in the Diligence for the Thursday following we paid another visit to the Sallon this Morning and repeated our Praises of the best works


we here met with Mr Byerly who accompanied Page 8v us to St. Denis about 2 miles out of Paris & where many of the French Monarch's are Interred, we here saw some very ancient Monuments among which was a very strange one to the memory of King Dagobert the founder of the Abbey about the year six hundred & Odd his Figure lies on a Sarcophagus behind which are three basreliefs in the lowest he is represented Surrounded by Devils who are forcing him away above the Bishops come to his assistance & contend for him with the Devils & in the upper one he has proved victorious & the angels are Conveying him to Felicity [26]  I saw many large monuments in Marble which it would be tiresome to Enumerate towards the Choir on one Side was a kind of Pavillion which Contain'd the State Coffin of Louis 15 Cover'd with purple velvet adorn'd with Escutcheons Banners &c with the Crown & surrounded with large wax Taper[s] continually alight & thus does this Stately Pile remain Until the Reigning Monarch tired of this world's trouble retires to Rest when his Bier takes this Place & his Memory is kept alive by the Pomp & Solemnity of this appearance [27] 

In the Treasury we saw many Curious Relicts and {very} valuable things among which I remember a beautiful Vase of Oriental Agate wonderful for its size & perhaps more so for the work which Page 9 Surrounds it, a Bacchanallian Feast — there was another beautiful Cup but I forget the material we saw Crowns Swords & Spurs without Number the Sword of Joan of Arc claim'd my attention most as did her Portrait which hangs up & which they say was done while she was living she is represented in a warrior's dress —

we saw diamonds Perles & precious Stones without number the whole being contain'd in Seven armories or Cabinets all of which were Shewn us by a Friar with the utmost patience & Civility out of the Common hours he being ast [asked] it as a favor done to us — who when I ask'd him as delicately as I know how if he would permit us to recompense him for his trouble more delicately answer'd the pleasure he had in shewing us those Curiosities was a sufficient reward for any trouble it had occasion'd The Grave yet pleasing manner with which this was done charm'd me & has added a dignity to the Order in my Esteem not soon to be forgotten his memory I shall long revere

we return'd to Paris chang'd our Hotel to that of (Tours) where Mr Byerly was & had the first comfortable & decent dinner since our arrival in that Great City Page 9v


On Sunday Morning we set off for Versailles & in our way met an English Stranger who wish'd to be of the Party — we din'd at Marli [Marly] saw the Palace and Gardens which were nothing Extraordinary [28]  the curious Machine also which Conveys water to a Canal 5 hundred feet {the} which by means of proper Aqueducts Supplies Versailles with water and it is a great Quantity indeed that must answer that demand there being numerous Cascades & long Canals in the King's Garden the which are always open for his subjects to walk in, the walks are Spacious & adorn'd with Groups & Statues [29]  the fountains {they play allways on Sundays} have all groups in their Centre in one Neptune with Sportive Dolphins in another Apollo in his Char[iot] in others Tritons & Neriads On Sundays they are allways put in motion and in warm weather must be very refreshing in a more private {& woody} part of the Gardens & under lock & Key are two very picturesque Grot or Bath It Imitates a shagy Rock from different parts of which the Water Spues & gathers itself into a bason in a hollow crevice of the Rock is Apollo {as} Just return'd from the Bath attended by the Nymphs of the Fountain at a distance are his horses under the Care of Tritons &c the groups are Page 10 very fine prettily dispos'd & the whole has a charming {Pleasing} effect, This is the prettiest thing in the Gardens & next to it at some little distance is a large Circular Temple Compos'd of Arches a light Arcade which runs round it — the Top of this Building is open in the Centre is a Groupe of Pluto carrying away Proserpina in the Basreliefs on the Pedestal is the Story at large & Ceres seeking her Daughter in The Infernal Regions — This Building has a very light Effect & pleased me much — The Palace of Versailles is large & very Magnificent the Apartments are very Superb but the Exterior of the Rooms are filthy & Close to the Palace Gates on one side are little mean Stalls where they fry Sausages sell Cook'd meats & where all Filths & scents seem Combin'd we saw the Theatre of the Palace which was very Rich the scenery the fustion {or rather pasteboard} Heroes in their Char[iot]s drawn by fiery Dragons &c were patiently waiting their Kings Command —

but above all we saw Louis himself and Indeed a very good looking man he was — He pass'd to Chapple in Company with his {Royal} Brothers Monsieur, & the Compte D'Artois [30]  who is a very handsome man his Sister also but not the Queen — On Monday Morning we saw the young Duke of Normandy a fine sturdy lad about five Page 10v Years Old. We visited the Menagery which contains some Curious Animals — a large Rhenoceros 3 beautiful Zebra's 2 large white Camels Buffaloes &c all tame Indian Monkeys, foxes &c various Species of Birds none of which exceed the richness of the Indian {Cock} Pheasant these birds are kept in large Rooms with {green} wire fronts among them in an inner Compartment wired in were three or four fine Persian Cats one of which mew'd piteously, a french Lady of the Party who seem'd fond of animals harangued poor puss expressing her Surprise at her discontent seeing she was so finely housed & well fed, Ah Madam said I she sighs for Liberty — Stern's Starling did not express himself more Plainly than this poor Cat [31]  — I left the Place with a mixture of Pleasure & Concern — Concern that Animals Intended by Nature to Rove at Large were for Man's Caprice depriv'd of Natures right but knowing that for Monarch's Pride it must be so I was pleas'd to see so much care taken to render their Confinement as Comfortable as might be by having large Compartments with every Indulgence according to their different likeings fresh Pools of water for the aquatic Birds warm dry comfortable habitations for those whose Nature delights therein & Court Yards or large Grounds for the Wilder race to rove in at Night Page 11 Thus are they all humor'd in there [their] own way except poor Pusses who tho in the warmth yet being placed in Sight of the Birds aye in their very reach yet like Tantalus are prevented from gratifying what the strongest Temptations are Constantly Exciting them to wish —


On our leaving Versailles we visited the Sevre [Sèvres] Manufactory & saw the Process from the first sprinkling the flour to the last Touch of the Finisher {Artist} [32]  we also saw the different Progress of the Modellers & Painters from the young Pupil who was just learning to draw a leaf to the high finish'd model or the well Color'd Painting of the Principle Masters we afterwards saw the Shew rooms where are many beautiful pieces of workmanship especially in Bouquets of Flowers {modelled,} very well Imitated from nature & almost as light as the flower itself — This manufacture is encourag'd & supported by the King to whom every Year is shewn the new Productions from which he chooses what best pleases him next the Nobility make their purchases & the Residue is left for the Inspection or purchase of the People at large — but the Articles being finish'd with great Care & Nicety sell very dear so that it is only People of Fortune that can gratify themselves by Possession, It Contains an Academy for the Children of those employ'd to learn Drawing & Painting so that when they are capable they get their living under the same Roof with their Parents thus they form a Body Comfortable Page 11v happy & Industrious; we din'd at the Town of Seve and return'd to Paris in the Evening —  [33] 


On Tuesday we took an outside view of the Palais Royale [34]  this Building was begun by Cardinal Richelieu about sixteen hundred & odd he presented it to Louis treize & It is now the Residence of the Duke of Orleans who has Collected a fine apartment of Pictures from the Great Masters which we took much delight in viewing he has also made various other Collections of engrav'd Stones Natural History &c but these we did not see The Court of this Palace has a Piazza like our Covent Garden which is form'd into a Street by a double Row of Shops setting forth all kind of finery & gewgaws to attract the notice of the fine Folk who assemble in the Court when the Evenings permit where they walk & talk & take Coffee or Lemonad & make a kind of little Vauxhall [35] 

The Louvre [was] inhabited formerly by Charles the ninth & under him became the Theatre of Perfidy & horror [36]  Louis quatorze quitted this Palace for that of Versailles since which time the Louvre has become the habitation of the Arts & great Artists [37]  — the Academicians [38]  have apartments in it design'd them by King & it is here the Exhibition of Painting & Sculpture is expos'd to the view of Public every two Years The Palace of Luxembourg is the Residence of the Duke of Orleans {Monsieur the Kings Brother} the Gallery of this Palace was Painted by Rubens in 24 Pictures an Allegorical History Page 12 of Mary of Medecis [Medici] & Henry the fourth [39]  — but these are remov'd with many Others to the Museum which is preparing in the Gallery of the Louvre —

Near this Palace in the hard winter of 1784 the poor People who had been much reliev'd by the bounty & care of the present King Erected an Obelisque of Snow & dedicated it to Louis 16 every one came to Pay a tribute of gratitude by fastening Inscriptions [. . .]{of Thanks} among them was this—"Louis, the Indigent whom thy Bounty has protected could only raise to thee this monument of Snow but this will please thy generous heart more, than of marble paid by the Bread of the Unhappy" —  [40] 

[Paris churches]

Notre Dame (the formere Cathedral) was the first Church the Christians Built at Paris about three hundred seventy five the Church we now see was built in 1185 under the reign of Philippe August it is a large Gothic Building Ornamented with many Pictures of the Miracles of our Saviour & his Disciples there is a Picture of the vow of Louis 13 he is offring his Crown to the Virgin & puts himself & his Kingdom under her protection by Philip Champayne [Champaigne] there are many votive Pictures & offrings of Silver to their favorite Saints there are some Statues also — Chapels along the sides of the Church with Altars richly Decorated & lamps burning —

behind the Choir is the Chapel of Interment of the Harcourt family where there is a large Modern Monument to the memory of Count Harcourt it was Imagin'd by his widow & Executed by Pigalle Page 12v his Tutelary Angel raises with one hand the Stone of the Tomb which contains the Count & with the other he holds a Torch to recall him to Life, the Count reanimated disembarrasses himself of his [...] raises himself & Extends a feeble hand towards his wife who hastens to unite herself to the Object of her Tears {him} — Death Inflexible stands behind him & announces to the Countess by shewing her his Sand Glass that his time is run out the Angel then extinguishes his Torch — this is the Moment which is represented in the Monument it is reckon'd very fine — & for a french work it may be so but we are going to a better Land

The Sorbonne is a pretty little Church it contains the 12 Apostles the Evangelists & some Angels all as large as life placed in Niches — It has a screen of fine Corinthian Columns & a {large} Crucifix of white Marble upon a back of Black — There is a famous monument (by Gerardon [Girardon]) in the middle of the Choir where Cardinal R[ichelieu] [41]  founder of this church he is represented as half lying down his right hand on his heart in his left holding his works of Piety. Religion Sustains him and Science weeps at his feet — we went to see the Old Abbey Church of St Genevieve a very favorite S[ain]t in Paris to whom they are building a very beautiful new Church of which I spoke before and the Dome of which Mr Davis [David] is to Paint [42]  — Its form is a Greek Cross & its Porch resembles that of the Pantheon at Rome & has altogether a very magnificent Effect Page 13 the Old Church contains many very ancient Tombs such as of Clovis & his wife Clotilda [43]  &c

The Pulpit is curious its form is a Lyre decorated with 3 Genii & mounted on an Eagle — Here is also the Chusse or Case of St Genevieve cover'd with riches & Precious Stones it is supported by four statues of Virgins larger than life, there is also a nosegay & a Crown of Diamonds the one presented by Marie of Medicis & the other by Marie Elizabeth of Orleans dowager Queen of Spain, to this Church belong a large Library and a Curious Cabinet of Antiques which we did not See — the inside of the Church & Chapels that surround it are crowded with votive offrings to this Saint they chiefly consist in little Pictures representing the Blessing or Benefit Receiv'd from the supposed mediation of the Sainte — and as some were offer'd by the Rich and some by the Poor they make a very motley appearance & I hope one not to be transplanted into the new Church to spoil the Effect of the {Interior} beautiful architecture of that Building —

we saw many other Churches of which this Place abounds all much in the same stile —

[Gobelins Manufactory]

we went to see the Gobelin [Gobelins] manufactory of Tapestry, It is astonishing to see how exact they die their Worstes to the shades of the Paintings they are to work from [44]  there are considerable works going on here for the King & Nobility some from copies after Raphael some from modern Pictures the subjects from Don Quixot In the Master's private Room we saw some Portraits very well done allmost to a Deception —

Page 13v

The City of Paris is a Dirty filthy Place as ever I was In in my life, the streets are very narrow the houses very high, we counted many Eight Stories and I think some Nine; it abounds in Palaces — Public & private, but these are so surrounded by petty Stalls & Dirt & Poverty of all kinds that the magnificence of the Buildings are only to be seen at a Distance & towards the Top — the Bridges are {many &} Shabby, & the famous Pont Neuf disappointed me It is a long Bridge over two arms of the Seine it has 12 Arches — there are about twenty Shops on it & the Rents of these serve as pensions to the poor widows of the Academiciens — towards the middle of one side is an Equestrian Statue of Henry the fourth under whose reign this Bridge was finish'd [45]  — In the Place Royale is an Equestrian Statue of Louis 13 the Figure in Bronze the pedestal of Marble In the Place des Victoires is a pedestrian Statue of Louis the fourteenth he has at his feet the Cerberus to mark the triple alliance — a Victory who with one hand places on his head a crown of Laurel & with the Other hold Branches of the Palm & Olive on the Pedestal are four Basreliefs [46]  & at each Angle are Bronze Figures of the Nations {over which} France has triumph'd —

In the Place de Louis 15 near the Thuliries [Tuileries] is the figure of Louis Quinze on horseback in Bronze by Bouchardon [47]  — there are several other public Squares or Places decorated with Page 14 Statues too tedious to mention I shall therefore take my leave of this Place remarking that the Inhabitants wear Swords Bags & wooden Shoes save some who went bare foot — Thus is to be seen a thorough Mixture of Magnificence & Filth Pride & Poverty [48] 

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[Montreuil - Sens - Auxerre - Saulieu - Autun - Chalon-sur-Saône - Mâcon]

On Thursday October 4 very Early we got into the Diligence & bid adieu to Paris fam'd notic'd for its Beauties by all Connoisseurs & by me for its abominable Filthyness — On this account my regret for leaving it was much diminish'd but the more so as I was going to trace the Ground my Friends had gone before & in all probability overtake & Surprize them before they expected My account of the adventures of this vehicle or a description of the villages I pass'd through will be but short as I feel an equal Eagerness to bring my account to our pleasant & unexpected meeting at Challon [Chalon-Sur-Saône] as possess'd me at the time for the completion of that my wish this Coach held Eight People five of whom were selfish Frenchmen one french woman & ourselves we pass'd by {a devant} the Bastile the sight of which fill'd my mind with horror —

we rode many hours in the dark one while the whole Company totally Silent napping as I suppose then another while & on a Sudden Chattering like so many Magpies it only needed one to open his mouth & the others went by mutual Consent during one of their silent Fits I heard a strange Muttering from an Officer who sat near me I thought for some time that he was talking in his Sleep but I found afterwards that he was repeating numberless Prayers for a Prosperous Journey —

We din'd at 11 O'Clock at Montreuil — Page 15 Supp'd at Six & Slept at Sens Saw the Cathedral where is the Monument of the Dauphin & Dauphiness 1765 [49]  Friday we got a Cup of Coffee at Joigny — din'd at Auxerre where we met two Englishmen — Slept & Supp'd at Lucy le Bois — Saturday din'd at Soulier [Saulieu] — Slept at Autun a pleasant little fortified Town at the Entrance are the remains of a fine Roman Aqueduct (see Flaxman's Book) the Cathedral we did not see it being too dark when we arriv'd — here the Lady took it in her head that she would not go on to Challon but return again to Paris — Sunday we got to Challons where all Travellers meet in Summer time on their way to Lyons, as they here enter the water Diligence which pleasantly conveys them down the Soane [Saône] to that Place — the Country we had pass'd through from Paris was very hilly with pleasant valleys & vineyards rich in grapes of the sweetest sort we generally pluck'd a bunch for Breakfast during this Passage, we saw women at Plough in several Places & doing all those Laborious Offices which in Our Country are allotted to Men —

On Examining the Books at the Dogana [customs house] [50]  I found the well known names & trac'd them to their abode I surpriz'd them all with my Presence & after dinner favor'd them with my Company in the Diligence d'eau to Lyons — this vessel is very comfortable & not much unlike to our Company's Barges [51]  but not so fine — we din'd sup'd & slept on Shore as there are numerous Page 15v little villages Scatter'd along the Banks of this River — at Tournus we parted with two French Officers in whose Company we had Experienced much Pleasure for some few hours they were perfectly well Bred Men & did every thing to make their Company agreeable & the time pass pleasantly and recover'd greatly in my Opinion the lost Character of the French Nation — they belong'd to the King's person & I believe were sons of Men of Rank —

when they got on Shore they were met by a venerable Old Gentleman & Lady (Father & Mother to one of them) The Pleasure that Sparkled in all their Countenances and the tender Embraces of the Old folks over their much lov'd Son, the distant yet Polite attention of the other {Friend} who join'd them a Minute after; the Solemn Manner in which they proceeded along the distant Reach 'till they gain'd the Village, Silent through Excess of Joy — seized my mind romantically — I never saw so graceful & affecting a meeting before

we slept that night at Macoń [Mâcon] enter'd the Vessel at four on Monday Morning din'd at Arriette at arriv'd at Lyons in the Evening —

Soon after we had enter'd this Vessel we saw in the distance Mountains Capped with Snow and for some Miles before we reach'd Lyons the Beauty of the Country & the richness of the Scenery was beyond {all} Description on one side high rocks with Castles, then beautiful little Pieces of Plantation with Village Churches rising in the distance Page 16 gentlemen's villas with high Groves of Trees back'd by the distant hills — and thus did each Bank of the River strive for Mastery in giving pleasure and delight to their beholders — Unfortunately for me I lost much of the Prospect owing to a poor maim'd Dog which belong'd to a master unworthy of Such fidelity — his foot had been much bruis'd by the wheels of the carriage in which his master rode the day before & was likely to receive fresh hurt in the Bustle which our near approach to Land occasioning among the Boats Crew to prevent which I stood forth his Guardian friend his poor foot was Cover'd with my drapery his head lay in my Lap & his Eyes were spontaneously lifted up to my Face expressing the most lively gratitude for my Care nor would he quit me 'till I gave him to a man who carried him on shore when he follow'd his master to his destin'd Residence


we found the Hotel des Province a very good one & Situated in an airy Pleasant Street Call'd Rue de Charite one end of this Street or Place open'd to the Place de belle Cour a pretty large Square with a walk of trees at the End Surrounded with large {white} houses belonging to different Manufactures & Inhabited by different Families in the Middle of this Square is a Statue of Louis Quatorze on horse back in Bronze [52]  This City has the rapid Rhone on one side & the milder Soane on the other which joins the Rhone a little way out of the Town It contains but few things Interesting to an Artist especially who is on his way to the mistress of the world —

Page 16v on Tuesday F[laxman] & I stroll'd about the Town there are Some pleasant Quay's along the Sides of the Rivers & some curious wooden Bridges the interior Streets are narrow & Filthy —

On Wednesday we visited the Hotel dieu or public Hospital it will Contain near ten thousand Person's when we were there it had only about one thousand & twenty each Invalid has a Bed to himself & there are wards for different diseases [53]  the Bedsteads are of Iron for the sake of Cleanliness the sick are attended by a Sisterhood with the utmost humanity Voluntary among these are some Skillful Leeches who make up the Medicines according [to] the Prescriptions left by the Physician the Quiet & Neatness that pervade this Place is astonishing in the Centre where ma[n]y wards meet is a large Dome on the Ground is a Marble Mausoleum or large Sarchophragus in honor of its founder Freliere [54]  in another central Part is a Chapple where those who have recover'd offer up their thanksgivings for themselves & Prayers for those that remain Sick it is in sight of many wards they were at prayers after their dinner when we went in — we enter'd the public Chapple belonging to this Place & heard part of a funeral service the Chapple was hung with black & white Cloth with Scutcheons & lighted Candles the Bier rested in the middle surrounded by large wax tapers the whole had a very Solemn effect — this Charity is supported by a Ferry over the Soane which Collects a Page 17 Deal of Money as every one pays Chearfully their Might [mite] towards such an Institution I was happy to hear it was very Rich

we chang'd the scene & went to St John's Church where we found a Curious Old Clock on the Top of which there is a Cock who Claps his wings & crows thrice every hour under him is God the Father two doors Immediately fly open from one the Virgin comes forth who is met by an Angel from the other who salutes the virgin & at the same time the holy Ghost descends on the head of the Virgin when this Ceremony is Ended they all retire to their Respective homes & a fierce looking Guard runs nimbly round the ramparts to see that all the doors are safe & thus this Story Ends —

After a very pleasant walk we return'd to Dinner & in the Evening F[laxman] & I went to the Play It was Call'd the Jealous Lover It was Supported by Madmoiselle Contact & Monsieur [...] the Young & Garrick of the King's Company [55]  — the Comedy was witty & well play'd the after piece call'd the fausse Agnes [56]  was very laughable Madmoiselle Contact was truly diverting in the part of Agnes & I return'd much Satisfied with what I had seen & had only to regret that I had not receiv'd equal Satisfaction by not equally understanding the french Language —

On Thursday the wind blew so violently that we would not stir out or there were yet some Curious things to see however we made a few purchases within doors & pack'd up for our next day's Journey which commenc'd on Friday [57] 

Page 17v On Friday Morning 5 O'Clock luckily for us a heavy Rain came on during the Night that abated the violence of the wind which would otherwise have prov'd a very disagreeable Companion — we got into a very Comfortable little Coach had two very good horses & a Civil Driver & in Sober State we took our leave of Lyons [. . .] fam'd for its manufactures in Silk, but for which I think they make Individuals pay very near as high as in London Mr & Mrs Deveare set off for Marseilles on the Thursday by the Coach d'eau which runs down the Rhone to Avignon In our way to Turin, we din'd at St Laurent with another Party who had left our Hotel at Lyons the same Morning & we slept at la tour du Pin where we found bad Beds to our great discomfort —


On Saturday morning [58]  we took Coffee at the three pretty Sisters at Pont Beauvoisin [Pont-de-Beauvoisin], [59]  after which we walk'd over a {strong} little Bridge, which cross'd the River Guyer [Guiers], here our views began to enchant us & we soon dismounted from our Carriage to walk up a winding hill by the Side of which ran [. . .] an Irregular Stream which in many Places seem'd to steal from Broken Rocks which bounded the farther Side & from whose Summits spued numberless Cascades of Beautiful variety, [60]  among these Broken Rocks were little Huts & shrubbery & near the Top of one a Hermitage, whose master we met in the Road seeking his Provender — these Picturesque views almost fascinated us; [61]  It is the Outlet to the Alps & lays between huge Rocks, they say that Hannibal Page 18 divided these Rocks & form'd this Pass for his Army with fire & vinegar However that might be, we took great delight in the Idea of tracing the fancied steps of that valiant warrior having Clim'd a very Steep Romantic Hill & the way becoming very dirty Lyd & self got into the Coach — the men continued their walk, we our Observation & Expressions of delight, 'till we arriv'd at the Bottom of the Descent. where we found Auxechelles [now Les Echelles] [62] ; and Din'd — after which we became Impatient to get forward as we expected from the heights which surrounded us to meet with a second part of our Morning's Landscape, & the Coachman not being ready we set forward on Foot, it is not very Easy to loose [lose] ones way among these Mountains as there is but one passible ascent [63]  — Our dinner had given us fresh vigour & we began to Climb a very steep hill some way up we found the famous Grotto call'd the Key of the Alps you pass now by a fine Road made by the Duke Charles Emanuel 2d {1670} who married a Niece of Louis 13 & wish'd for former services done him by France to make an easier Communication between the Kingdoms formerly you pass'd through a dark Cavern — we found on the Side of the Grot an Inscription — Natura occlusam, Romanis intentatam Caeteris desperatam, &c —

It now unfortunately began to Rain, the Coach was not yet Come up, & we endeavour'd to find a shelter in some of the hollow Places in the side of the Rock, but being promis'd a better security from the Rain in a large subterraneous vault which ran under the Grotto & seeing the Dr had scrambled down over some large loose stones to examine the Interior parts or Caverns that were form'd, My presumtion told me I could do the same, but unhappily for me the Rain encreasing I encreas'd my haste over some very Slippery Stones cover'd with Green Moss & had a disagreeable Page 18v fall — nor did I know for some minutes that I had sprain'd my right wrist sadly — I made the best of my way back over the loose stones & was very Glad to see the Coach was near at hand for we had walk'd a considerable way, the Rain seem'd coming on apace & my Arm was in very great Pain, wherefore I gladly got in, & admir'd in Silence from the Windows of the Coach, the Stupendous heights from which at Intervals spued Cascades which lost themselves among the Interstices & again appear'd in open Day forming themselves into little Rivulets below and in the way were we treated all that afternoon Scenes intirely new to us, Rocks whose Summits reach'd the Clouds Tier beyond Tier asscending, when we had as we thought reach'd the Top, a backward Row presented itself & we still found we had the hill to Climb [. . .]and in this manner were our Expectations Check'd for some hours when at length we began to descend to Chambery [Chambéry] leaving our work (that of gaining the Summit) seemingly as much unfinished as at our first attempt — [64] 


We got to {found} Chamberry a little City, delightfully Situated in a Charming Valley Surrounded by Rocks mountains, woods & fertile Meadows —

Our Postilion lived here & he took great Delight in driving us through the Town to shew us its Extent & fountains, of which it seem'd to abound — he then drove us to a good Inn where we found a good natur'd Hostess Kind welcome & agreeable fare the Savoyards are esteem'd a Laborious hospitable People, not so the Piedmontese — the Chain of Mountains which seperate them seems to have placed an Inseparable barrier between their Courts

Page 19 On Sunday Morning we left Chamberry & continued our Route through the Alps not knowing which to admire most the Stupendous Rocks with their Tops cover'd with Snow uniting themselves with {by} the Clouds which form'd {Aerial} Bridges from Rock to Rock, or the fertility of the Vallies ornamented with scattered Cotages the Lambs grazing in the little meadows at the foot of the mountains which sent forth frequent water falls & form'd little Brooks & rivulets of Pleasant Variety [65]  — here we saw the Valley of the beauteous Adelaide [66]  we recogniz'd the Mournful tree the Comfortable cot, We saw the Hill where Fonrose sat & pip'd so Sweetly, I had almost said I heard his song!

I was in a dream, nor did Lyd's remembrance of the Charming Tale & well tim'd annotations lessen my Delirium — [...] Marmontel I thank you! You added new Beauties to this {little} spot & form'd {prepar'd} my mind to taste the sweets of this delightful Scenery — we all were fascinated with the views, & Join'd our wishes for a little hut at the side of a fine trout Stream which ran Gambling by wherin to pass a happy day — we enjoy'd much pleasing Conversation & Ideal Bliss, and in the Evening slept at la Chambre [67]  and willingly rose the next Morning to renew our Scenes of Grandeur & delight — { took milk at St Jean de Maurienne} this Day we rode along a fine Tempestuous River {call'd l'Arc} which flow'd Impassion'd over the fallen Pieces of the Rocks which had vainly tried to Stop its Course {often crossing little wooded Bridges — the water winding much} — the fresh breeze from the waters the sight of the surrounding Snow & the bleak winds from of[f] the Mountains had well nigh petrified us 'till the lazy Sun had climbed the Steep & spread its Influence on the vale beneath — here we found the Mountaineers pressing the purple Grape the Vineyards yielding plenty

Page 19v we now began to be Impatient for a sight of the famous Mount Cenis at least Lyd & self could now scarce think of anything else nor did we fail this night at Modane to mount it in our Sleep the very next day being the appointed time for that Stupendous Enterprize [68]  — On Tuesday Morning Oct 16 we got to Lannebourg [now Lanslebourg] {a Village well Peopled &} the last Village on this side the Mountain, where we din'd Encreas'd our Cloathing and soon found our Mules Caparison'd & waiting at the door to receive us, nor was it without much Contrivance, & more laughing, that we were fix'd in our Seats, however with good assistance & some contrivance Lyd & Self Cross'd their Backs & began our March fearful of every Pebble that lay in our way. My Mule was ornamented with a bell being destin'd for the vanguard; Lyd follow'd next and the Gentlemen in order; the little dog [69]  was deliver'd over to the care of a young Italian of this Party who was more acquainted with the ways & means of crossing this Mount — [70] 

we form'd a drole Cavalcade but our fear was soon transmuted into Mirth at the Idea of what our English Friends would say to see us in Such Plight; we rode triumphant o'er rising ragged Ground in a zigzag round till we nearly gain'd the Summit {being an hour & a quarter} the Town of Lanebourg diminish'd in our Sight as we ourselves exalted; 'till it was transform'd as to a heap of Stones — On the Top of this Mountain are found a fine Plain with a beautiful green Lake in the Centre we dismounted & Page 20 walk'd some way over this plain ground & then reseated ourselves on our Mules & were by them Conducted to the Grand Cross [71]  which is at the Extremity of the Plain & where Lyd & I {and little Dog} were deliver'd over & squeez'd into the smallest Compass possible, it was a little kind of Chair with Elbows, but without feet, two Poles run along the side of the Wicker Bottom & it was a tolerable size for one middling Person ; this wicker bottom was laid upon the Earth, & we were stuff'd into it as you would squeeze two large Parcels into a little Box for a long Journey that they might not rub to Pieces by any Motion I verily believe if they had toss'd us over the Mountain they would have found us in the same Seat so difficult was it for us to be mov'd, and in this manner were we Convey'd down a steep & rugged Precipice, without any defence on either side, by two Chairmen who no doubt found our weight more than our worth; It cost us a deal of Mirth, & them a deal of Labour, and when they wanted to rest they consign'd us to the Cold Ground without the least reserve [72] ; we were Surrounded by snow top't Mountains, amus'd by the falling of numerous Cascades whose prismatic effects against the sun's Rays were truly beautiful — the wind blew briskly round the side of the Rocks & concentrated on our poor heads, & which would certainly have mov'd us from our Seats had such indeed been practicable — we might well have been Compar'd to some of Shakespear's similes as two Cherries growing on the same stalk having but one heart &c —  [73] 

Page 20v Our good humour more than our great Coats kept us warm, & the care & surefootedness of our Conveyers rather than the Safety of the Passage kept us alive & unhurt till we got to Novaleze, after making innumerable turnings like to a Greek fretwork, over stones laid Edgeways down steep descents to gain the wish'd for Spot we suffer'd ourselves to be carried through the village in this guise, receiving the Bows & Bowesses of all the Villagers, who scrambled & made way as though we had been Eastern Princesses convey'd in litters on the backs of Elephants themselves, this caus'd no little diversion to Lyd & I, Indeed if it had not been for the Oddity of our Conveyance all over this Mountain & Especially down the hill, we should have been wearied [with] the Fatigue, chill'd to Ice with the Cold, & frightened to death at the Sudden descents & apparent difficulties we had to Encounter —

this grand Exploit took us near 5 hours to encompass the descent is near 5 miles — Mr F & Dr B, chose rather to trust to their own Legs than those of others & with much Labor walk'd down this descent, the wind at some Intervals almost took them off their Legs [74]  Our Hats were in great danger altho fasten'd for the occasion Lydia['s] took a little gamble across a little plain & was very near being drown'd in a rapid stream which ran by — at Novaleze we had a Comfortable dish of Coffee & rested there that night being too tired to proceed to Suze [Susa] the usual Place of Rest & where some Englishmen who had just passed the mountain were gone before [75] 

Page 21 we rose at four the next morning, the men with Legs of Lead — of our own feelings I shall only say that we remember'd the Mules for some days after — we now enter'd the vast Plains of Lombardy, reckon'd 90 Leagues in length to the Adriatic Sea; here you find a {total} Change of Climate, of Language, Character, productions natural &c —

We pass'd through Suze about 7 O'Clock, [76]  It is a little fortified City [77]  — & has a triumphal Arch, some say it is only an Inscription in honor of Tiberius, Authors differ and I have not time now to set them right — however I believe it was the first thing of the kind I had met with in Italy, It is in the Garden's of the Castle & we only had a Glimpse of it en passant — we din'd at St Ambroise [Sant'Ambrogio di Torino] pass'd through Rivoli a pleasant little town there is at the extremity a Pleasure house belonging to the duchess of Savoye the Country about is Charming, Vines, Mulberry trees & Cornfields in plenty —


the Road from Rivoli to Turin being two leagues is a straight large Avenue border'd on each Side with Elms which in Summer must afor'd much Shade & make this Road delightful we pass'd by some pleasure houses & enter'd Turin over two draw Bridges & through a large Gate guarded by Soldiers — having had this City in view for 2 hours we endeavour'd to get Apartments at the Hotel Royal but could not as the aforesaid party of Englishmen had Occupied all their Spare Rooms — we therefore made the best of our way to another Inn & were civilly conducted to it by a Gentlemanlike looking man who we thought was perhaps the Master of it or his good friend but we found it otherwise for the next morning when Mr F[laxman] was going to the Bankers he met with this same Person who was standing at the door Mr F[laxman] asking him the way to the Bankers he again Civilly Page 21v Conducted him there, & back again, F[laxman] on his return Spoke to us in the highest terms of this man's Civility still supposing him to be the master of the Inn [. . .] after dinner he came up stairs to Know if he should Conduct is any where about the City, I thank'd him & told him we would not give him any further Trouble — when he ask'd for Payment for what he had already done telling us he was a Valet de Place & should be happy to serve us in that Capacity — we look'd at each other with some astonishment as he had on the two former Occasion's absolutely press'd himself into our Service unask'd, but we found on other Occasions during our Journey that this way of acting is very Common among the Italians to trick the English Gulls out of their money — It was agreed to give him the value of 2 & 5 — & send him away — The Inn we Occupied was entitled the Bonne Femme [Good Woman] not that I saw [. . .] any female bad or good about the House during the time we staid — Men there were in plenty & I decypher'd the Enigma of the sign thus "that it requires many men to make one good woman or that one good woman is worth a Multitude of Men" —

Turin is situated on the borders of the Po it has four fine Gates placed towards the four Quarters of the Globe, all the Streets {cross each other at right angles they} are regular well built & Clean but no pathway [78]  — the Churches are numerous mostly in the same taste, magnificent & heavy without any good effect, the Pannels which are of themselves rich are Page 22 made more so by the Decorations of the Pious with votive offerings of Silver hearts legs arms &c — we made a few Purchases in the city, were caught in a Shower of Rain, no hackney Coach as in London — we made the best of our way to the Inn where we spent the Evening in reviewing & Criticising on the Past & making new Regulations for the future the Principal of which was to agree with our voiturier to Conduct us to Florence — the Man who had brought us from Lyons had (during our traversing the Alps) express'd his partiality for the English Gents and also said he should like to Convey us to Florence a Place he wanted much to see, we therefore agreed to give him the preference — which we did & made our bargain, but the Italian Voituriers at Turin soon frighten'd him from his new Journey by telling him of the many troublesome Rivers there were to Cross &c & he turn'd us over to another at a cheaper Rate putting the overplus in his own Pocket — but this I suspected & prevented & after much to do I made a fresh bargain with another man for sixteen Louis being 3 less than the former bargain & possess'd the savings myself — [79] 

On Friday we visited the Royal Palace which possess'd a large Suite of Rooms truly magnificent, we saw a great number of Cabinet Pictures many of which were esteem'd fine by the Connoisseurs of the Party, if I may dare to say which pleas'd me most they were the following [80]  — Abraham putting away Agar with little Ishmael — some little pieces with Children dancing by Albani — a portrait of Charles the first & another of his 3 Children by Vandyke [Van Dyck] — a famous Picture by Gerard Douw [Dou] [81]  — a sick woman sitting in a Chair her Child kneeling by her & crying, & a servant who at the same time that she is giving a Potion to the woman regards the Child with the utmost affection, a Cabinet room with high finish'd miniatures many of them pleas's me, but as it is impossible to remember all one sees I must refer the Curious in Paintings to better Judges for a detail of the fine things in this Collection — one of the Galleries was lin'd with different Sorts of Marbles properly dispos'd & had a rich effect, the furniture of all the rooms was very Elegant, Our Cicesbeo in this Place was very Polite & well Page 22v Inform'd respecting its Contents, & we left it much satisfied; at the foot of the Grand Staircase is an Equestrian figure in Bronze of Amadus [Amadeus] the first, the horse is of marble & treading on Slaves the Idea is Cruel & the Execution bad enough [82]  we walk'd round part of the ramparts took a slight view of the City & its Invirons, from a rising ground, & return'd home to dinner In the afternoon the rain prevented us from going out — the Theatre which is reckon'd very Considerable — we did not see and what is still worse we neglected to see the University & museum of the King which we afterwards found Contain'd many very Curious things, antiques, Medals, &c —

there is a Brotherhood Call'd Misericordia whose business it is to attend Criminals visit the Prisoners &c. They have a great procession on good Friday — the Kings guards go first with tambours & fifes when follows the Statue of Amadas duke of Savoye & then fellow priests, then the Crucifix, then a long company of the above mention'd Brotherhood, & a deal more that I heard of but do not remember — I have already said that this is a Clean little City — it swarm'd with Soldiers in all Parts — but to be more Concise — the Inhabitants seem'd to me to be divided into two Classes the one were cloath'd with swords & Bags the other in Filth and Rags the Rich walk about & do Nothing the Poor Stand Still & do the same I saw no kind of Business going forward but the Peruquiers [wigmakers] the Royal Family & most of the nobility were absent being the season for villeggiaturing [83]  — we found excellent fruit here such as grapes Figs Pears & Apples —  [84] 

[Chivasso - Cigliano - Vercelli]

We left Turin on Saturday morning, in a large heavy Neapolitan Coach & three shabby party Color'd Mules, one of which the Voiturier himself was soon asham'd of & bought a pretty young mule in his Stead; It is the Custom in Italy to hang Bells about the mules necks (& decorate the saddles with fringes & Feathers), nor was my Rhetoric with Segnr Baldi sufficient to do away any part of this Custom, or lessen his Partiality towards it, so on we went the Bells ringing, the People staring & some hooting I suppose at the shabbiness of our Page 23 appearance, & yet I did not find any Travellers better accomodated than ourselves in this particular except those gentry who travell'd in their own carriages with just Post horses — now & then we had the Pleasure to see an English Postchaise pass us but this happen'd very seldom — sometimes on Entering a great city I felt myself a little mortified, but this soon done away with the diverting reflexions of what our friends would say should we enter London City and appear before them in such Plight — the Consonant sounds or rather never ceasing Jingle of the Bells lull'd us to much Sleep during the whole of this Journey —

we din'd at Chivesco [Chivasso] & being Saturday we found meagre fare; being the first real Italian Dinner I shall enumerate the dishes — a Macaroni soup with cheese, some nasty rice fritters with Cheese, salt fish, Pickl'd Fish & a plate of little fried things that were tolerably Palatable but as I fanci'd they were snails I could not be prevail'd on to eat any, the Dr was the only one among us who relish'd it, insisting all the while that it was little fish It might have been, but I am sure I saw one or two long snails if not more among them — any kind of Flesh could not be got for Love or Money, we paid 2 Shillings {Livres} a head for these messes & enter'd our Carriage hungry & discontented, & withal fearing our fare might not prove better in the Evening —

we soon forgot our troubles in Sleep, & about seven we reach'd Cigliano; I Immediately visited the Kitchen & took the voiturier to help me out in ordering a good Supper of Meat — we from this day carefully charg'd the Landlords of all {Inns} to omit cheese in our soup & Garlick in our meat — the supper turn'd out tolerable, a weak broth made with the liquor of a tough boild Fowl; a do [dozen?] Roasted dry as a Stick, Page 23v were the two Principal Dishes, & while these were preparing we took Coffee, Lyd & I slept Comfortably in a tent Bed with Curtains, this began to be a novelty

In the morning the servant brought an enormous charge for our Supper, because it was grasse, [85]  however I did not give him above two thirds of this demand, that being still too much, as I found the value of two English Shillings was the establish'd Price for Supper & Beds — & ever after I made the Coachman Pay the road Expenses

On Sunday we din'd at Verceilli [Vercelli], where we again found bad fare, & we slept at Novarra [Novara] {a little fortified town Ladies in black veils} — good Supper & beds [86]  — This is a little fortified Town still in the Sardinian Dominion, here we were inform'd that we could not pass the River Tesin [Ticino] at the usual Place, as it was much swell'd by some Rains that had fallen in that Country wherefore we were oblig'd to make a long round of 3 or 4 miles to get at a Safer Crossing, here we were ferried over in a little {Leaky} dirty boat by two awkwards beings as ever I saw & the River being pretty Rapid and interrupted with some bushy Islands, I was not intirely at my Ease, the appearance was very Picturesque & I endeavour'd to stifle my fears in admiration, we landed safe on the other side & walk'd near a mile to a little village consisting of about 5 houses luckily for us it was a delightful morning & we made our hearts glad during this Promnade with the Idea of a Comfortable dish of Coffee, untill our Coach should have pass'd this River also — a thing not very easily to be done as there were but two little Boats for the Coach the three mules , the Coachman & Postilion & some others & how they managed it at all I cannot guess —

Page 24 we enter'd the best looking house of the scatter'd 5 which was pleasantly situated at the foot of a bridge by the side of a River & enquir'd for Coffee Milk & Bread & butter they mistook the word latte (milk) for Letto (Beds) owing to our awkward manner at Pronouncing the Italian I suppose, they therefore shew'd us up stairs to a room with 3 Beds told us they would make a fire & prepare them for us Immediately — we look'd for a while at each other when my Sagacity found out the Mistake which I explained to our young Hostess as well as I was able telling her it was not Beds we wanted but a good Breakfast — we descended merrily into the Kitchen & renew'd our Solicitations but being told by the Host & his Daughter that their Coffee was broth & their Milk wine — as to Butter — they scarce knew what it meant we alter'd our Plan Mr F had a bason of greasy water {call'd} Broth & we found in the Cupboard a Cold boild fowl, rather tough some stale brown bread & very indifferent wine, however being somewhat hungry we made a tolerable repast & were very thankful for we had risen that morning very Early the wind was fresh especially on the water & our walk had altogether gotten us good appetites {& why could not one be contented for one meal with that coarse fare which our fellow creatures were glad to live on always} — Lyd & I employ'd our time in making some memorandums & discoursing with our Landlord's Daughters who were all very busy in Picking fowls &c until our carriage arriv'd, when our Boxes were search'd & ornamented with the arms of Milan we left this Hamlet in triumph & rode through some very Pleasant Vineyards & din'd In an out of the way Place [87]  where we found excellent Bread & Butter indeed — a good rice broth & a tough Roast fowl &c. In the Evening we reach'd Milan [88]  — and took up our abode at the Three Kings a stately Hotel where we were elegantly serv'd & for which they made us pay pretty dear


Milan is reckon'd the largest town {it is about 6 miles in circumference} in Italy next to Rome Its Cathedral which we went to see the next morning is a fine large structure in the Gothic taste the Steeple is the most Page 24v beautiful thing I ever saw so very light & Elegant — this Building {is Gothic} has been begun 3 hundred years & is not yet finish'd [89]  it is intirely of marble It is crowded with Statues {40000} & Basreliefs both within & without some of them tolerable behind the Choir there are a number of Basreliefs in wood [90]  of good workmanship & well design'd but Flaxman will do them more Justice than I possibly can I will therefore only bear them in Mind & endeavour to gain a knowledge of the Arts & a power of describing what I see of them with a Justice equal to the Love I have for them & the Pleasure I receive in viewing those that are truly fine, under the great Altar, is the Chaple [crypt] of St Charles Boromeus adorn'd with Eight large Silver Basreliefs Representing the life of that good saint, his Body reposes in a Sepulchre of Rock Chrystal mounted in Silver the whole of great magnificence — there is also in this Cathedral the famous figure of St Barthol[om]ew flea'd [flayed] the inside of the Cupola is worked in fine mosaic — the Nave is hung with Tapestry &c — [91] 

from the top of this Church you have a fine extensive view of the Plains of Lombardy —

We were recommended to a Mr Franchè [Franchi] director of the Academy & it is but just to say that the Civility we receiv'd from this Gentleman far exceeded what we had any reason to expect — he spent all his spare time in Shewing us the Curiosities of this City & one day that he was Oblig'd to be at the Grand Duke's — he sent us [a] friend to supply his Place untill he should return — he took us to see the Ambrosian Library [Biblioteca Ambrosiana] where we saw two Manuscript Books of Leonardi da Vinci's, one was chiefly fill'd with mechanical figures & the other with designs from Nature or his own Imagination — here is a beautiful holy family by Leonardi da Vinci & other good Pictures & drawings — some original Drawings of Raff[ael] [Raphael] [92] 

Page 25 This large Building was formerly belonging to the Jesuits but which with many others has been by the Emperors order transmogrified — on the Other side of this Building is the Academy which contains some very fine Casts among them is a Fawn snapping his Fingers & a sitting Mercury. [93]  This last is exquisitely beautiful — Our Kind guide has apartments here & we saw some pretty things in his study There is also a very pretty fountain done by him in this City — having seen these things we return'd to our Inn drank Coffee & spent an agreeable Evening all together

On Wednesday we visited some churches which we found in a much better taste than those at Turin — In that of St Maria della Grazie [94]  in the refectory is the famous Picture of the last Supper by Vinci, the subject seems well treated & the character of our saviour gracious & pleasing [95]  — there are some Columns before the church of St Lawrence which they say are the ruins of the temple of Hercules {16 columns} — baths of Maximilien &c in this afternoon our friends friend came to visit us this Gentleman had been in England & spoke tolerable English with him we saw some Churches of Curious Architecture [. . .] the Hospital a wonderful large Building & the famous Observatory — but Luna was either Cross or Bashful for she continued to screen herself behind a thick Cloud & her bad Example being strictly follow'd by the rest of her Nightly Companions we could not gratify our Curiosity (as we wish'd) through a fine large Telescope that was there and of Course lost some precious Ideal Reveries — This disappointment was partly made amends by the Presence of our Friend Franche who was Just return'd from the Duke's Villa — and to fill up the vacant Evening they conducted us to the Opera — This Theatre is counted the largest in Europe except St Carlo at Naples Page 25v We found [it] Large & Magnificent but very Dark {in Comparison with ours} into Pit {four tiers of} Boxes in the Pit chairs are placed instead of Benches & the Boxes are all private little rooms where between the acts the company visit drink Coffee or Lemonade {& sometimes they let down the shutters that they may not interrupt the play} there was such an Incessant Noise all the while that I could not hear anything except a pretty air now & then during which performance the audience was tolerably Quiet, we saw two grand Ballets the subject of one was the vanquish'd Amazons — the Scenery is by no means to be Compar'd with ours in my opinion either for effect variety or good management — the Duke's Box is in the Centre & takes up the place of six or eight, which forms a very good sized Room, it is constantly lighted up, the other Boxes are generally hir'd for the Season & have little or no light in them, they were by no means full as all the Quality were gone Villegiaturing The Duke & Prince Albani favor'd the audience with their Presence in a private Box which it seems they frequently do — having seen the Duke, the Prince, the Audience, the House & part of the Opera we return'd to our Inn as we were to set off early the next morning & of Course had many little things to do, we thank'd & took leave of our Civil Friends & if I may answer for myself — I still feel grateful for their Kindness & attention [96]  The streets of this City are by no means so regular as those of Turin — the Kennel runs through the middle & there is a pavement of Flat Stones at a little Distance on each side of it for the Carriage wheels to run on, the coaches here are numerous with running Footmen to precede them Fantastically dress'd the sides of the streets are in many Places paved with Bricks which to be sure is better than the rough Pebbles we had hitherto Page 26 met with on this side the Channel but the Care taken for the ease of the Rich & the total Negligence for the ease of the poor are sufficiently Evident even to a {passing} stranger, there seem'd to be much more business going forward there than at Turin & the shops were decorated with taste the People seem'd all alive & very Industrious in general the same professions got together there was here a street of Booksellers & there a street of Goldsmiths like the Coachmakers in our Long Acre — we met with great Civility & left Milan much Satisfied On Thursday Morning —

about 9 miles distant we came to Marignano, where Francis the 1st overcame the Switzers & remain'd 3 days after {the Victory} in the Field of Battle, the first to return thanks for his victory the Second to bury the dead & the third to receive the Chevalier Bayard — we pass'd Lodi a little fortified Town din'd badly at a little village corner house (being the good Landlady's washing day) we slept at Castel St Giovanni with Lyd here the waiter was very inquisitive & careful that the women should sleep in a Separate room he set me down as the Dr['s] wife Lyd as my daughter & Flaxman as a Brother to one of us — The next morning we pass'd the River Po — on a flying Bridge & were not unmindful of Phaeton's downfal — it is a fine clear River & the Weather was delightful; we Breakfasted at Plaisance a pretty town [97]  we visited some churches the Dome of the Cathedral is by Guerchino in fresco — we din'd about 12 O'Clock & slept at Borgho St. Donnino [now Fidenza] here Thoughtless lost her Pocket Comb —


on Saturday we got to Parma to Breakfast having pass'd some fine even Roads, we made ourselves a little decent & walk'd about the town [98]  we found it a very Busy scence [scene] the common People in little Straw or chip hats about the size of a small Plate we were satisfied with our own Inn & corrected in our Italian by the waiters we took a Cicerone & visited the Churches which were numerous & full of curious Paintings by some of the great Masters many of whose works the envious hand of time has anatomiz'd & others totally deface'd

Page 26v In the Dome of the Cathedral are the remains of Correggio's Painting, he was famous for being the first Inventor & perhaps best Executor of Painted Cielings This Cathedral is very Magnificent a famous Madonna & Child by this Painter as the story goes he painted this on the outward wall of his Godfathers house & being so well done it rais'd such adoration in the breasts of the Pious beholders that with the frequent Donations of these People there was at last sufficient to build a little Chapple for its preservation — but his most famous Picture is in the Academy, [99]  it Represents our Saviour in his Infancy on his Mothers Knees playing with the Ringlets of the Penitent Mary who embraces his feet St Jerome is introduc'd & little St John altho these two saints were divided by the space of 4 hundred years the coloring is much esteem'd & it is copied by every Modern Painter who passes through that City (or near it) how many Duplicates of this precious Morsel have I met with in my Journey we saw the Duke's Theatre & music room, the latter was decorated with Paintings & the former with Statues which altho it look'd magnificent I think must be render'd troublesome by these little Posts as they certainly must intercept the sight {holds 12000 People — not in use at present} — we saw some tolerable Pictures in the Academy as also some antique Statues [100]  to enumerate all the different Pictures in the churches is impossible many of them Pleas'd my fancy much — a fine Dome by Parmegiano — the ch[urch] of the Sepolchre is a Picture of Correggio, [101]  Joseph gathering Dates for the Infant Jesus Angels bend down the branches for the old man to Pluck the fruit. The Figure of Joseph badly foreshortened It struck me as if the Painter had forgot himself & thought he was Painting for a cieling or Dome — [102] 

Page 27 after dinner we stroll'd about the town & heard a fine Orator in the Market Place he was mounted on a Stage surrounded with Pictures of Miracles I believe — he was entering into a Surprising Detail but as we did not understand his Lingua we soon turned our Backs on him & amus'd ourselves in a Language which we all understood well — We slept well & left this agreable City on Sunday morning This Days rest from travelling had quite recruited us — we din'd at the [?far] End of Reggio & got that Evening to Modena but being in the dark I could form'd no Judgment of the City [103] 


— we fared pretty well here & Monday about Eleven O Clock we arriv'd at Bologna we found a very good Inn at the Aquila Nera, — we had a thorough Cleanse after an Excellent Breakfast & then we stroll'd about till dinner which was indeed very good — It began to be very seldom now that we got anything fit to eat indeed nothing but the necessity of violent hunger could have prevail'd on us in some Places to have tasted of anything that they brought to Table — no wonder then that I dwell so much & mention the few good meals we did now & then find, — at Bologna we made up for our deficiencies since our departure from Milan & laid in a store also to serve us till we should arrive at Florence —

This afternoon was employ'd in looking at the famous fountain of John of Bologna [Giambologna] a Large figure of Neptune on the Middle & Mermaids round him squeezing water from their Breasts [104]  Facing this fountain is a large Gothic Church St Petronia [San Petronio] with 3 gates which are ornamented round with little Basreliefs the subjects from holy writ & some of them done with wonderful Simplicity & grace, In St Giovanni della Monte [San Giovanni in Monte] we saw Raphaels famous Picture of St Cecilia She is surrounded by St Peter St Augustine &c She holds an organ in her hands the which she droops on hearing the sound of heavenly music which proceeds from a Group of Angels that are visible above her head — the Expression of this Page 27v Picture is wonderfully fine, I was quite fascinated with it and sorry to leave it, in the next Chapple of the same church we saw a beautiful Painting by Perugino (Raphaels master) of St Catharine St John & others who are looking up to the Virgin St the holy Infant on her knees with an angel flying on each side the heads of all these figures pleas'd me especially the Countenance of St Catharine which was beautiful and delicate, — the Brotherhood of this Church were very polite in shewing us these Valuable Pictures —

On Tuesday we went to see the Academy a very large Building in which is a Curious Collection of Anatomical Studies done in wax by a Lady [105]  — another Collection of Natural history in which were many Curious things but it falls short of Dr Ashton Lever's Museum in England, rooms for Experimental Philosophy rooms of antique fragments another of Plaisters & they had begun a Collection of Etruscan vases, Some Pictures of the Old Bolognese school —

there is a Marine & Geographical school — another for Drawing &c Some Models & drawings of English Artists who had been admitted honorary Accademicians — Barry's large Picture was among them & perhaps the best there [106]  — we were all heartily tired before we got through the Place there being such a Multitude of Apartments to see in it, we Return'd home very tired & hungry & I believe we did not see anything else that day — we were visited in the Evening by one Mr [?Verynona] a talkative Banker of this Place —

This City abounds in fine Palaces in which are Collections of the finest Pictures, in the Palazzo Capprara is a Portrait of Michael {Angelo} [Michelangelo] painted by himself — but out of the Many, three I remember gave me great Pleasure to look at Page 28 The Head of the Prophet Isaiah & its Companion the Sybil who holds in her hand a scroll from the above Prophet on which is written "He shall be Crucified" her looks express her sorrow for the fullfilling of this Prophecy & they are truly Piteous [107]  — a little Picture of the Virgin with our Saviour & St John the Virgin does not seem above Sixteen it is a Pretty thing & done by Corregio [Correggio] — [at] Palazzo Sampieri the labours of Hercules by Carraci [Carracci] my favorites were a douce of beautiful boys by Albani, Abraham putting away poor Agar & her Son; her looks seem'd to say 'you then send me away.' also in the Palazzo Pubblico we saw many fine Pictures St John in the wilderness by Raphael — there are 3 of these fine pictures each claim originality 2 must be copies — one in Paris — Bologna & the 3rd at Florence —

In this City are two high Towers so much out of their perpendicular that is seems dangerous to walk near them [108]  — I thought Bologna had a heavy appearance in the Interior parts, owing to an arcade or Piazza on each side the streets, but this is very Convenient for the foot Passengers during the rainy season & indeed it admits of many Pleasing effects as it affords many spaces on the walls within the arches where are Paintings in fresco which please the Eye of Passers by, & in some of the exterior Parts of the Town owing to the turnings, these arches become pleasingly Intersected through them in the distance sometimes we saw little Sketches on the whitewash'd walls — some of the houses are of a light Pink, for the most Part Clean & the whole together in these Parts had a chearful effect —Page 28v


On Wednesday Morning at four O Clock we left Bologna Our Brains were Giddy with the multitude of Paintings we had seen in the several Palaces & churches of this famous Place — we rode through a valley our views were various, the high Alps, The towns we had left behind, & at a great distance the Sena [Zena]; this was when we began to spend ascend the Appenines — In some parts we found them somewhat resemble the Alps through much Inferior wanting their Stupendous heights their Cascades Plantations & variety, however they were not without their beauties tho' more barren & they afforded us at times a beautiful Prospect of the distant Countries we found a hospitable Reception in the midst of an uncouth spot  [109]  where we satisfied our hunger & warm'd ourselves here Lyd rambled to the top of a high piece of Ground to Sketch views & had like by that means to have gone without her dinner the servants of the house sought for her & return'd without her the servant of an Neopolitan Officer who had Join'd us at this Dinner tried his Skill to find her but in vain this rous'd the Dr who rose to the Search himself when Lo the Heroine appear'd her hat tied gypsy wise to repel the high wind & to all appearance half frozen however a little weak broth soon warm'd her & all was right again — after this repast we continued mounting slowly round the Hills towards our Evening Lodgment — before dusk we were stopp'd at a Dogana being now in the Tuscan Dominions again, here we deposited money, & lost our fellow Traveller a few miles on one Side of us there is a kind of volcano or incessant blue flame which rises from the Earth but as the Evening was hazy we saw nothing of it — Page 29 and as we [had] still some Leagues further to go that Evening we would not turn out of the high road — we still continued Mounting and towards six O Clock we thought verily we had got among the Clouds the Mist was so great we could not [see] a Yard before us Night came on & an uncomfortable drizzling Rain the road became steep & dangerous, unguarded on the sides which when we were near the Edge shew'd us a frightful precipice at last it became so dark we could see nothing nor could the driver we were oblig'd to trust to the horses untill we got to some Stables when the Voiturier thought it necessary to have lights & a guide to walk before, I must own I was much frightened before the lights came nor was I alone in this dilemma, Our lights in the front of the Coach soon blew out so that our whole dependance for safety was on the little mercury with his Lamp who went before, & about 8 O Clock we arriv'd safe under a Gate way belonging to a house which for its situation Magnitude Emptiness & uncommon Noises I fancied for some time was haunted but my weariness being to strong for my weak fears I sat down by the fire & soon took shelter in the Lap of Morpheus till supper was serv'd up the which was scarce worth Eating however it paid us the Compliment fulfill'd the Custom, & we soon departed to our several Chambers there were many sportsmen in an adjoining room who disturb'd us early in the Morning but we took an after nap & did not set off till seven O Clock when we bid adieu to this our asylum in the midst of distress — calling to mind the pleasing Sensations it had occasion'd the foregoing Evening in our affrighted breasts we continued traversing the mountains about 4 hours when we stopp'd at a Solitary house to dinner here we found our sportsmen frenchmen & our yesterday's friend the Officer they had avoided the disagreables of the past Evening & stop'd Page 29v Short chusing to rise at 3 O Clock & travel by the morning light rather than continue their route that rainy Evening this we could not do for there was nothing where they stop'd but straw & threshing floors — this Gentleman din'd with us and we continued our Route together to Florence


a few miles before [we] arriv'd the Prospects began to be very Pleasant [110]  we descended all that afternoon & entered Florence at the Porto Gallo passing close by the side of a great triumphal arch Erected in honor [of] Francis 1st Emperor of Germany [111]  we were stop'd at the Entrance by the officers of the Dogana but being a wet Evening & almost dusk we bribed them to Come to the Inn to search our Baggage whilst this business was settling at one Coach window we were tormented at the other by four or five strange looking Persons each very voiciferous in persuading us to go to different Inns according as their Interests dictated one said Meggits was the Inn for English another said the Scudi di Francia was by much the best & so on, however we settled to go to the Crown of France for that evening as being much nearer for the officers of the Dogana to attend us we found a Civil Landlord who welcom'd us to Florence we drank Coffee, & at nine O Clock we were treated with some real good Fare a roasted Turkey a good Soup — some boild meat Potatoes & Sallad all after the English fashion — with a desert of fruit — good wine & all very Chearful & well attended — the apartments were Elegantly fitted up with silk hangings & in the bed rooms with printed Callico — we slept that night in Paradise — & the next morning was chiefly taken up in setting ourselves a little to rights & walking in the gardens of the Palace Pitti — we all met at dinner & found good old Page 30 English Fare, the two Principle dishes being Roast Beef & Plumb pudding the other dishes were all very good but we found this would prove a dear Place & as the Dr & his dear little Girl intended going forward to Rome with the Italian Officer the next morning & it was our firm resolution to stay some weeks in this charming City, we Immediately look'd out for other Lodgings [112]  we found Meggits the Englishman full — the last rooms being taken by some English Gentry who arriv'd some hours later than us — we call'd on an Old Friend of Mr Flaxman & he strongly recommended us to Vannini's on the side of the Arno — to this Man we went & made our agreement [113]  — we sent for our Trunks Immediately we went & bid adieu to our old Friends & drank Coffee in our new lodging — we were here Quiet & Pleasantly Situated our windows overlooking some little Gardens & the River Arno — the next Morning we call'd on our friends before their departure & took our adieu for some time & here I spent the most comfortable month that I had spent for some time past — as it had been all hurry & bustle for some time before I quitted England and during the whole of this journey I had been much harass'd having to manage for the whole party Especially after we lost Mr Deveare — here I had nothing to do but for myself — My time was chiefly employ'd in putting to rights some of the wrecks occasion'd by our Journey & visiting those Places where the fine things were for which this City is so famous — a description of all which I am going to make Memorandums of [—] The Cradle of the 2d rise of the Arts under the Medici

Page 30v This City is situated in a Plain — it is strongly wall'd round by the art of Man and more so by Nature's self being intirely surrounded by the Appenines — those sides of the mountains which front the City are romantically sprinkled with Gentlemen's Villa's Convent[s] & small Churches even to their Summit; the Streets are well pav'd throughout with large flat stones laid Cornerwise in a very short time after a heavy Shower the Streets are sufficiently dry to walk in without any Inconvenience although I do not remember any Kennels — Men come to clear the way of all kind of filth every day the River Arno runs through the town (near the farther side) but it had not on its Poetic garb whilst I was there being very Muddy & Shallow two very Inimical Properties to Poetic flights, four Bridges Cross this River at small distances from each other the Ponte Vecchio or (Old Bridge) has houses on it these are chiefly Inhabited by Goldsmiths whose shops make little show as indeed seems to be the case through all Italy the Ponte della Trinita [Trinità] is the last new Bridge & is form'd on three low arches in a pretty sweep & has a dwarf wall, & is reckon'd a beautiful little thing with respect to its Contrivance lightness & shape. Carts & all lumber Carriages are forbid to pass this Bridge but must lengthen their way a little to pass the Ponte Carara [Carraia] which is a little lower down the stream The shops throughout the Town are regularly shut up at one O Clock & remain so till three during which time they refuse all Custom & in most parts of Italy if you call on any one (either on Business or to know how they do) at their dinner time they refuse to see you as they will not be disturb'd from their Repast, & afternoon's nap, so that if the servant says his Master is at dinner it is consider'd as great a Bar to Entrance as if he was out — The Inhabitants of Florence are very Civil & honest to a Proverb although there are many Beggars & some of them so Saucy that when you tell them you have no Quattrini or small Money, they tell you they will give you Change [114]  Page 31 one of these Quattrini they are fully sattsified with from the Natives but seem to Expect more from Strangers & they generally demand of them a Cratzia they are very Clamorous & will not take a Denials, the first degree of People here dress somewhat like the English first dress, but I thought rather french the 2d rank of Ladies go about in long black coats or veils the men of all Classes wear bags & the 3d race such as Peasants & washerwomen wear black Leghorn or Chip hats constantly their hair curiously plaited underneath some of the old folks are on a Sunday very spruce indeed dress'd in as many colours as the Rainbow but somewhat differently arrang'd —

The Florentines respect the English much & they have good need but they think them proud & I believe rich without End, the English may live here just as in his own Country with respect to eating good Roast Beef & well dress'd, Mutton & veal of good flavour, they may also drink English Porter or ale but these are very dear being 1s6d per Bottle The wine is very good & cheap it is something like claret, the autumnal fruits we found delightfully good such as Grapes Pears Apples & Figs, If you look sharp you may live tolerably Cheap but here as every where else they will impose on you if they can, the shopkeepers generally ask twice as much as they will take [115]  The Curious little specimens of art that are everywhere expos'd to view about this City keep strangers much in the streets & scarce suffer them to get to a destin'd Place by the time appointed the Churches are very Magnificently decorated & mostly of good architecture with Superb Altars & many of them have Paintings of the best Old Masters —

[Florence churches]

In the Church of the Carmini are some Pictures of Masaccio [116]  (the life of Peter) the Simplicity of Stile Pleas'd me as did some of Andrew del Sarto's which are in the Piazza Cortile before the church of the Nunziata, the subject of one was a Page 31v Saint raising dead Children to life Philip Benizzi — In the Church of Santa Croce is the tomb of Michael Angelo [117]  it is form'd of a Sarchophagus on which are plac'd 3 Figures representing Sculpture Painting & Architecture and on the Top is his Bust above which is plac'd a small Picture of his painting of a dead Christ supported by his Mother the Statues were done by {3} different sculptors — In this Church also are some fine Pictures of Giotto's — the Coronation of the Virgin & two small ones of the life of Christ, there are some also by Taddeo Gaddi, One of the Chapples call'd Cappella {dei} Nicolini is intirely cas'd with Marble chiefly white it has a Noble appearance it contains 2 Pictures & five Statues, viz Moses, Aaron, Virginity Prudence & Humility —

Santo Spirito this architecture is by Ser Philip a Brunelesco [Brunelleschi] and very Beautiful it is divided into three naves supported by rich Columns & contains 38 side Chapples all adorn'd with Paintings in one of these is a groupe in Marble of a dead Christ on his Mothers knees [the Pietà] a copy of that which is in St Peters at Rome by M Angelo

The Duomo is a very large Building somewhat like our St Pauls the outside is incrusted with Black & white Marbles, the front was formerly adorn'd with various Basreliefs & statues after designs of Giotto but these were destroy'd in 1586 & an Intire new front made 1688 The Cupola is of an Octagon form Michael Angelo used to say it could scarce be equal'd but never out done the architect was Ser Philip Brunelesco [118]  here are his Portrait & Giotto's in Marble & of Dante in Painting {very ancient} [119]  The Pavement is of Inlaid Marble & that part round the Choir was design'd by M Angelo in one of the Chapels is a Case of Bronze sculptur'd by Ghiberti which contains the Bones of St Zenobia [Zenobius], there is the Monument of Marciliu Ficino [Marsilio Ficino] Page 32 & the Picture of John {Joannes} Acutus [Sir John Hawkwood] — who was an Englishman & a great deliverer to Florence; at a few feet distance from the Cathedral is the Bell Tower design'd by Giotto it is {43 ft} Square & {252 ft} high, & looks somewhat Gothic ornamented with marbles, [120]  it is adorn'd with basreliefs & the first Idea of the creation of Eve is on this Building by Giotto — which is the same with that of Ghiberti M Angelo —

a few Paces further is the Baptistry of St John, [121]  They say it was a Temple of Mars It is of an Octagon & has 3 famous gates of Bronze two of which are by Ghiberti & of great Beauty subjects from the Old Testament on one & on the other from the new, I felt myself quite in M Angelo's opinion when I view'd them & thought them really worthy to be the gates of Paradise the third gate is by Andrea Pisano — over these doors are plac'd figures larger than life of saints some of Marble some of Bronze & before the Principal gate are two very large Columns of Porphyra given them by the Pisans & the chains which hung up in other parts of the City are trophies of the Florentines when they forc'd the gates of Pisa

In this Temple or Baptistry is a very large baptismal Font which is adorn'd with various Marbles & looks very Rich — here are many fine Altars & large Monuments The vault is of Curious Mosaic {by Andre Taffi [Tafi]} [122]  & the whole grand & magnificent —

La Nunciata {see page 68} is a fine Church & posses[ses] many good Pictures I have already mention'd the Paintings of Andrea del Sarto which are in the Cortile before this church but it is impossible to enter into a Description of them all I shall only mention St Lorenzo in which church the Royal Dukes of Tuscany are Buried in the Medici Chapel are two large monuments by M Angelo of which Flax. has made sketches [123]  The architecture Page 32v of the Library is by M Angelo this Church is large & has a magnificent Altar which was putting up whilst we were there —


I shall pass over the rest of the Churches & take some account of the Duke's Gallery [124]  the which he liberally keeps open for the Inspection of Strangers

He permits any one to Paint or draw from what they like best, (by giving in a written memorial) & provides chairs & scaffolds & many other sundry articles necessary for students, & the Servants attend with all possible Civility the appointed hours which are from 8 till one & from 3 till 5 in the afternoon, they are forbi[...] by public decrees (hung at the Entrance & other parts of the Gallery) to receive anything from strangers on pain of being discharg'd & the Duke has augmented their wages himself; The Principal Keeper is a nobleman he has the Care of a most Curious Cabinet of Ancient Medals the which he attends twice a week to shew to any party who express their wish to see them in writing a few days before [125]  The General Custodie is Monsieur Regardez a very Civil man & has taken extraordinary pains to instruct himself in what concerns the treasures of that Gallery, he is delighted when he meets with a Gentl[eman] or artist who loves the art & understands its real beauties — & never thinks it any trouble to give long & frequent attendance on such, It was humourous to see how different the Keepers treated & explain'd the things to the different companies that came, if the company were Italians who only came to pass an Idle hour they hurried them through the rooms as fast as they could & generally made their chief halt in the two chambers of the Portraits where they selected out the portraits of the Lady Painters for the Ladies & some of the English Hero's for the gentlemen —

But to begin regularly with this choice & well regulated Collection Page 33 In the Corridors or Gallery which has three Sides {210 feet long} & an End is a Numerous Collection of Portraits of Great Characters of different Countries beginning with Artaxexes [Artaxerxes] Memnon King of Persia, [?Irregularly] down to [...]

warr[i]ors Cardinals Popes King of France & England {including wives} Philosophers of all Countries &c — a Collection of Historical paintings of the different schools some very Indifferent ones & some very good. however it is not for such an one as me to Criticize, as to do that with Judgment & propriety requires more powers than many people who pretend to it are aware of — Antique Statues & Groups amongst which I remember with satisfaction a drunken or rather a muddled Fawn by Michael Angelo, a group {of Bacchus & little fawn} by Sansovina [Sansovino] & others [126]  to enumerate the Beauties in writing would be an Endless task & I dare say the most worthy have not escap'd the Pen or the memory of Flax[man] — a series of Marble Busts from Caesar to Carinus with many of their wives & daughters almost uninterrupted — a bad bust of Constantine In the first enclos'd Chamber is a Ganymede restor'd by Cellini & a beautiful Cupid & [?Psyyce] &c & some Basreliefs, —

In the 2d is full of Modern Medals Bust of John of Medicis Father to Cosmo 1 — Laurence the friend of the Arts, the great Gallileo & a few Basreliefs & Paintings —  [127] 

3d Chamber is call'd the Cabinet de l'amour from a beautiful little Sleeping Love [128]  — here are a few Busts & Paintings —

4th is the Cabinet of Miniatures with small statues about 15 Inches high in niches & between 6 & 7 hundred Portraits in miniature & 2 views about near Rome — The Tribune which seems to be the favorite & worthily for it contains treasure unequal'd — The Room is round {octagon [...]} [129]  lighted from high windows which have Curtains that the light may be thrown in as is thought best — The first thing that strikes the beholder on Entering is the Venus de Medicis the best Casts of which give but a very Imperfect Idea of its Excellence, she is light as air & seems to move — The true author is unknown what a Pity! such a man ought to be almost Deified — but the Epigram that is found in the Greek Anthologie on the Venus of Praxiteles may surely Page 33v be applied to this same Figure, which has been translated into french thus, Oui, Je me montrai toute nue au Dieu Mars; au bel Adonis au Vulcain meme & J'en rougis [;] ma[is] Praxitele, ou m'at'il vue? [130]  — The Lutteur [wrestlers] are a fine group one head is thought to be modern; the Arrotino, The Fawn & little Apollo [131]  — the Paintings are by Raphael, Titien [Titian], Leonardi da Vinci, Annibal Carracci fra Cartheleus Rugged Rubens, &c all Choice Pictures, [132]  In the next room are Etruscan Vases of a very early date &c in the next Studies of the great Masters the 2 first thoughts of M Angelo for his last Judgment, different from the finish'd one — various Portfolios of Old Drawings — 2 large Rooms fill'd with Paintings mostly by the flemish Masters amongst them was the Portrait of Raphael by Vinci; a head of Medusa by him, a Portrait of Petrarch, one of Capella Bianca 2d wife to Duke Francis 1st some domestic scenes by Moeris [Mieris], Gerard Douw, &c very natural, but from common life, like most of the Duch & flemish Painters; this Collection is emense, then there comes a little cabinet containing Curious precious stones engrav'd Cameos of great value & fine in workmanship — the first room on the western side contains antient medals there are 12 Cabinets with drawers full of the medals of different Nations rang'd in Geographic order, the Gold medals are to the number of 11 hundred & 12, in silver 3750 — 90 with turn'd borders the whole making 14 thousand 7 hundred & thirty besides a vast number in Bronze this Collection daily Increases — on the [?Chimney] is a hand in terra cotta by M Angelo, when you pass from this Room you find 2 others fill'd with the Portraits of famous Painters done by themselves to the number of 410 — Sr Joshua Reynolds & Mr More in the middle of one of these Rooms is a beautiful Cupid in the action of defying Jupiter who threatens to clip his wings from Horace See F[laxman]'s Book

Page 34 In the next room stands a fine large vase brought from the Villa Medici, the sacrifice of Iphegenia, & in a nich is the Statue of Cardinal Leopold Medicis who began this collection of Portraits & who favor'd much the fine Arts — the next room contains Greek & Latin Inscriptions Basreliefs & Bust of Illustrious men viz Seneca Demosthenes Plato Homer &c Brutus begun by M Angelo {but left unfinish'd} &c [133]  — a Group of Hercules Centaurs in another room are some antique Statues an Adonis by M Angelo & some fine Pictures Then comes the famous hall of Niobe [134]  — then a little Room of very ancient Paintings among which is to be seen much Simplicity of Taste especially in some Angels surrounding a Madonna playing on different Instruments — a Room of modern Bronzes many of them copies from the figures in the Tribune in the Middle is the famous flying Mercury of John of Bologna, [135]  in the next room are collected some antique Bronzes a Boy adorn'd with many whimsical symbols which rather puzzle the connoisseurs the last room holds Etruscan Curiosities & in the private room of the Principal Director are to be found — a Basrelief in wax the ascent of the Cross by M Angelo many Engravings &c

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Page 34v The Palace Pitti is where the Duke resides A [...] Statues in it & a collection of fine Pictures — the famous Madonna della Sedia we found Mrs Naylor copying this in miniature [136]  — a half length Portrait of M Ange by himself — The Gardens of Boboli [137]  are large & Pleasant & from a very high mount you have a Pleasant view of the surrounding Country I would say but I mean of the surrounding Mountains — for Florence is intirely Shut in by the Appenines — however the Environs & the Villas which scatter'd all about & in some Places allmost on the tops of the Mont. look very Pleasant — Friend Smith {& his friend} drank tea with us pretty often & accompanied us to the theatre but we left him behind to paint Titiens fine Venus —

[large gap on page]

— Ch[urch] of La Nunciato, a Picture of the Annunciation of the Virgin tis said the artist finding himself much embarrass'd about painting the face of the Virgin as seraphic & divine & [sic for "as"] he wish'd he fell asleep & when he wak'd he was astonish'd to find a Portrait so very beautiful of the Virgin as Surpass'd his hopes of performing. he related this as a Miracle & no one doubted the vericity — this has of course given both the Picture & the Church great fame — in the Cloister is the celebrated Virgin of Andre del Sarto [138] 

— In the Annunciato [Annunziata] is the Figure of Christ dead support'd by God the Father by Bandinello [Bandinelli] [139]  decorated by him behind the chief altar, some little basreliefs in bronze by him the tomb of John of Bologna the Inscrip[ti]on is in a Chapel

Page 35 Many Theatres in this City — we went several times to hear the comedies of Goldoni & were much entertain'd — we went but once to the opera Lord Cooper having sent us the Key of his Parquet [orchestra stall]— but even that kind offer in future could not persuade us to kill so much time again as we did not at all like the representation — Ecclesiastics here are often managers of the Theatre for want of other avocations — the Ladies of Fashion are furious to imitate the English fashion but as the English pass through france before they arrive here & of Course get themselves frenchfied, the florentines can never get at the true English mode — nor do I think they would like it so well as they are intolerably fond of Finery, the country Peoples dress is very picturesque their Petticoats are generally dark blue or scarlet Baize — Stays their shift sleeves always clean & very white & to their shoulder straps are fastened bunches of Blue or green Ribons which wave in the wind their hair is plaited sometimes intermix'd with flowers & sometimes they have little straw hats tied behind their heads in general more for Ornament than use, —

Marso Finiguera [Maso Finiguerra] goldsmith — first invented engraving by making an Impression in the Earth of his works on Silver. {Plaster of Paris} —  [140] 

Florence Produc'd Cimabue Giotto Masaccio Fra Bartolom[...] [Bartolommeo] Leonard da Vinci, Andre del Sarto, Ghiberto [Ghiberti], Donatello Bondinetta Ser Brunulischo [Brunelleschi] Baptista Alberti [Leon Battista Alberti] &c Servandono [Servandoni], Architects Americo Vespusius Machiavel & other great men out of Number —  [141] 

The custom of Children kissing ones hand displeas'd me very much — it is an useless humility bordering upon Meaness The Improvisitors are extraordinary beings as yet I have not seen any of these Gentry unless I may honor with that Title some old blind minstrels who go about with their guitars & mandolines & seem to sing any two part songs extempore — but the real famous Improvisators such as Sig[no]r[a] Corilla, Abbe Lorenza [Lorenzi], Madeleine Morelli &c [142]  are very curious to hear they work themselves up into a great heat of enthusiasm & will repeat Impromptu a Tirade of a hundred verses on any given Subject —  [143] Page 35v


Thursday morning about 9 OClock we took leave of Sigr. Vannini & Quitted Florence [144]  we pd 5 Sequins a head for a voiture & a Crown for Buona Mancia [buonomano, gratuity] {all Expenses included except coffee} we were fairly cheated of our dinner this day to our great astonishment, & no little Concern — we supp'd indifferently at Poggia Bonzi [Poggibonsi], where we met with an agreeable Frenchman in a black velvet Cap who begged to be admitted of our Party, he had been a Pupil to Rousseau & Soon gain'd the nickname by Flax[man] of our friend Jean Teagues Rousseau We set off together in separate Chariots very early the next morning — we were extremely Cold I suffer'd so much by it that I could not sleep although it (sic) we rose at four O'Clock & of course rode above 3 hours in the dark, about nine we were happy enough to see the gate of Sienna [Siena] & the sun began to shine graciously — over the gate was written Sienna joyfully opens her Gates — (to Cosmo) & we more joyfully enter'd we were shewn into a little shabby bedroom with a paper window, we made a great Racket for a fire & soon got both that & some Coffee Bread Butter &c after this double refreshment, we went to view the Curiosities of the City whilst the Landlady prepar'd the dinner —

The Cathedral is gothic it is cover'd both within & without with black & white marble in stripes, in one of the Chapels are 2 saints by Bernine [Bernini] {bad} [145]  & 8 Columns of verd Antique here is also a Madonna as they say painted by St Luke, I begg'd to see it but the guide told me it was only exp[os]'d on certain great days by certain great men & then only to the Faithful, the Pavement of the Cathedral is engraved with large Figures, towards the Middle of the Nave this part therefore they cover with loose Boards, [146]  other parts are in Mosaic — In the Library is an Antique Group of the Graces said to be done by Sophronious Father of Socrates [147]  & round the walls are fresco's by Raphael & his Pupils & his Master P Perugin [Perugino]

Page 36 Insulated from the Duomo is the Baptistry which is Octag[onal] the Font in the Middle has basreliefs round it of Bronze the life of St John little inferior to the works of Ghiberti — but said to be by Giacomo [Jacopo] della Quercia —  [148]  on the Cathedral is a suite of the busts of Popes from Alexd 3d — that of Pope Joan was taken from among them by desire of Pope Clement 8

there is a curious Piazza or {oval} Square sunk in the middle [?like] a naumachie [naumachia] — the horses course round here in Carnival time, — it is ornamented with a fountain — the creation of Adam & Eve, their Expulsion from Paradise & the theological virtues all in different Basreliefs — there were also [...] of the Public weal but these were thrown down by time —

from Florence to Sienna we chiefly descended & then we found the Road very beautiful with Vineyards & Olive Groves

[Buonconvento - Radicofani - Acquapendente - Lake of Bolsena - Montefiascone - Viterbo - Ronciglione - Monterosi]

We made a Tolerable Dinner about 12 O Clock & left Sienna fam'd for Beauty of its women & the perfection of its Language — We slept at Buon Convento [Buonconvento] where we faced a stupid Girl — the Voiturier over slept himself & we did not set off till near Eight in the Morning after having regal'd on some Chocolate given us by Jean Jacques, our late rising was the fault of our voiturier & caus'd us to sleep instead of dining at the top of Redicofani [Radicofani] a wonderful high hill — we had almost lost our dinner that day too, there being no regular Place for the horses to put up at before the above mention'd hill, however we found a little village with two or 3 Miserable (but large) houses & we insisted on stopping at one of them to warm ourselves & to get something to eat, we mounted into the Kitchen of the best looking house but being Saturday (meagre day) there was nothing but salt fish in the Pot the which none of us lik'd but casting our Eyes upward as we stood by the fire side we saw some sausages hanging up but none of the good would cook them for us on that day so we cut some down & Jean Jacques stood cook — they turn'd out very nice ones & we had plenty of them we had Bread of our own & part of a Cold fowl so that with a Bottle of decent wine we made a tolerable dinner got a good warm a little Respite from Riding, & left the Voiturier to Pay the Reckoning — while we walk'd onwards

Page 36v We continued mounting all that day & after innumerable windings we Reach'd the Solitary Inn at the Top of the Mountain having seen a light from it for above an hour before we arriv'd — It was Eight O'Clock we had been frightened by some dogs who beset the Mules & made them turn out of the way which was rather dangerous upon this mountainous ground however at last we join'd our Companions & we all got round the Kitchen fire there being no other setting Room & but one little miserable room with a little Bed for us to sleep in, the mistress of the house was dress'd quite rustic with her hair plaited & her Sleeves tyed to her Stays with Color'd Ribbons with 4 or 5 well grown Children running about she made us a soup, fricaseed us something, & roasted us half a young Leveret which with wine & a few apples was our supper which was perform'd at a low table on one side the Kitchen and Our Voituriers supp'd at the other End thus were we Jovially United, we slept very well although there was no casement, for we shut out the bleak winds by the wooden shutter, we left this Place before day the next morning  [149]  & here I believe I lost my Pocket Book we soon begand (sic) to descend, & being in the Dark I found myself rather fearful but as the other Chaise went first I was somewhat Comforted, near to this Mountain was the site [of] ancient Clusium [150]  govern'd by Porsenna [151] 

about 8 O'Clock we enter'd the Popes Dominions we found a new built house near the Dogana (which made up the neighborhood), it was inhabited by some soldiers & one of them undertook to sell Coffee to travellers, we were very thankful to mount to his little Room & warm ourselves by his good fire & drink some of his Coffee for it was a very Cold Morning — we soon began to fine [find] the Road indifferent & the land uncultivated — two things very different in the Tuscan Dominions except just on the Mountains, we din'd badly at Aque Pendente [Acquapendente] [152]  & to make out dinner we were forced to send out for some sausages it is a sad poor Place & we soon Quitted it.

Page 37 we had a fine Ride this afternoon partly round the Lake of Bolsena this lake is most beautifully surrounded by woods through parts of which we rode getting a view every now & then of the immense Lake which is reckon'd 30 miles in Circumference beautify hanging hills all fertile when we had pass'd through part of the wood we rode Close by the Edge of the Lake it was towards sunset & I must say was really Beautiful — we left the Road a little to visit the Town or rather the Churchyard [153]  to see an antique Sarcophagus & then return'd again to the right road & continued a pleasant ride some times walking as the Irishman says till we reach'd the Top of another mountain call'd Montefiascone where we slept, we treated ourselves with a Bottle of the famous Wine of this Place call'd Est Est Est, —

a gentleman a great Lover of good wine travelling this Road — sent his Servant (who was a connoisseur in wine) on before to taste the wines on the Road & where he found it good he was to write up Est, where better Est Est. & where it was very Excellent indeed he was to write in Capital Characters Est Est Est, & this was the Place for the latter The Master of course took up his abode here for some days in which time he drank so much of his favorite wine that he died & his servant had him Buried near this Place & on his Tombstone is written Est Est Est — so the Story goes — we arriv'd so late in the Evening & set off so early the next morning that we could not Pay his Tomb a visit —. we had a very good supper & was serv'd by a very cross old woman at first, who wou[l]d not hurry to make us a fire tho' we were starving with cold but the waiter soon made his appearance & then all went well. I call'd for the Bellows to set the wood more alight but the man answer'd me by kneeling down & blowing it with his breath — after which he said there these are the bellows used at Montefiascone —

Page 37v from this Place we set off as usual before it was light & chiefly descended over a fine Road till we came to Viterbo where having arriv'd about 9 O'Clock we sought out a Coffee house & got a comfortable Breakfast after which we rambled about the Town which was somewhat considerable we saw some churches & the Town Prison we were taken for Spaniards & other out of the way Creatures especially poor F[laxman] as I walk'd about with my great coat and close Cap[,] 2 very uncommon things in this part of the world, we lost ourselves for above half an hour but at length found our Inn & our companion waiting dinner — after we had eaten an Indifferent dinner we set off and having pass'd Ronciglione [154] , we arriv'd at Monte Rosi [Monterosi] — there were a great number of Traffickers at supper in the great Room together with some noisy french Artists therefor having sat by their fire till our supper was ready we retir'd to our Bed room to eat our homely morsel in Quiet —

we set off at Break of Day for Rome as did a coach & four full both inside & out with the above mention'd noisy young Artists here was some strife who should enter the Gates of Rome first on account of being detain'd at the Dogana we actually Enter'd the Gate first but both being stopp'd at the Piazza to have some Questions ask'd they were dismiss'd first & of course got first to the Dogana which is about a Quarter of a Mile within the City Gate —


To describe our Joy when we beheld from far the Gates of Rome would be almost as difficult as to do Justice to the City itself—about 2 hours after we set off from our last sleeping Place we were attend'd by our Fellow Traveller who had alighted to see if we were asleep as we were now riding through the Compagna or Marshes the effluvia rising from these stagnate marshes is dangerous when People sleep in it, indeed the stink itself is horrible [155]  he also told us we were near the famous {Via} Cassius [Cassia] the Old high way Paved by Cassius partly & partly by Flaminius Consul it is a fine Strong Pavement of very large stones we also now & then began to see old ruins about which Page 38 we could only conjecture & call to mind passages & accounts from History, we fancied we saw the ruins of Temples & the foundations of Tombs of great men, as we descended mostly this morning & the air was pretty Clear we look'd sharply for the Ball of St Peter's Church which they say may be seen 16 miles before you arrive at Rome — we saw it & sang Huzza & welcom'd each other on our near arrival to the Mistress of the world When we were about 12 miles distant; our Impatience Encreasing as we drew nearer, the next object of our joy was passing the renown'd Tiber over the famous Ponte molle, [156]  where Constantine so bravely overcame the Tyrant Maxentius 312 the present Bridge is all modern except the arches & an old Tower built by Bellisarius, This bridge is at the begining of a straight Broad Road [157]  about 2 mile & a half from the City Gate — Vineyards on each side with a few Remnants of ancients Sepulchres &c — the Gate by which all Travellers who come from the North must enter at, is a large Gate & Call'd Porto del Popolo, or gate of the People, St. Peter & St. Paul stand in niches on each side & guard it I wonder they let so many of us Heretics enter— We enter'd into a large area or Piazza before were three streets, the ends terminated by two octagon Churches with Cupolo Porticos & in the middle of the Square is a large Egyptian Obelisk & Pedistal 112 feet high, curiously wrought with hieroglyphics brought from Egypt by Augustus, here is also a Fountain [158]  The Entrance is spacious & magnificent & Pleasing — they drove us a great way up the Middle Street or Corso which is ornamented with the Front of many Noble Palaces Churches &c. we turn'd to our right into a Square in the middle of which is the Antonine Column Curiously wrought all the way to the Top with Basreliefs — representing the victory over the Marcomani, it was Erected by order of the Senate — & Marcus Aurelius, to the honor of Antoninus Pius his Father in law; it is a hundred sixteen feet high without reckoning the Statue of St Peter which is 13 & the Base it is 15 in Diameter Page 38v & has a good staircase withinside — we at length got to the Dogana or Custom house which is within the Remains of the ancient Basilique or Temple of Antoninus Pius there is only to be seen at Present some part of the Portico of the Temple consisting of 11 large fluted Columns of white marble, Corinthian [159]  we beheld these things with Transport & were very Impatient to have our Baggage search'd & get to our Inn that we might dine change our Cloathing & be at Liberty to Behold the magnificent Remnants of this City, we escap'd paying duty for some Prints &c as I assur'd the officer the Packet was only studies for F[laxman]. — he was very Civil we gave him 3 Pauls & return'd with our Friend Jean Jacques to the Inn which he recommended to us, [160]  the Dinner was just going to be served up at the Table Rond, where our fr[ien]d assur'd me I might appear, so we went down in our dishabille & mingled with a large party of Italians French &, 2 English — of whom we had seen at Bologna en passant —

we had an exceeding good dinner of 3 Courses with fruit, my head was too full of the new world I was come into to eat much, instead of which we were tormenting the people with enquiries & attending to their reply's, the Englishmen who had plac'd us near them were very polite & describ'd to us the few things they had seen for they arriv'd but 3 days before us, they offer'd to shew Mr F[laxman] about the City the next morning for that afternoon was Rainy we thank'd them & Retir'd — we made ourselves somewhat Decent & the Rain ceasing we call'd on Jenkins the Banker [161]  who was mighty Civil in Recommending us a Lodging in the Corso [162]  we found out where Mr Deveare liv'd who had arriv'd about 3 weeks before after a very dangerous passage from Marseilles — we drank Coffee with Mrs Deveare heard her relate her past Troubles & present difficulties, got a Direction to Dr. Bates' & Return'd home spent the Evening with the two Englishmen supp'd & went to Bed — full of the thoughts of what Page 39 we were to see the next Day — Mr F[laxman] rose at day Break & accompanied by his Countryman took a slight view of many of the antient Edifices when he beheld the Coliseum a poor man ask'd Charity of him & he gave him a penny for Joy he said that at last he beheld that famous remain of Roman magnificence he return'd home full of the Curiosities he had seen we were invited to Breakfast with the Major [163]  after which we all went together in his Carriage & saw such numberless things with our Guide Book in our hand as I shall never be able to give an account of but I remember St Peter's Church was the first Object that he took me to see — this vast Building & the beauty of its area & Colonnade excited my Admiration as did the Coliseum Pantheon & ancient Temples without number — we return'd to dinner when the rest had done & in the afternoon we went to look at our Apartments in the Corso 3 very pretty furnish'd Rooms Near that End of the Corso joining to the Piazza del Popolo with the use of the Kitchen & servant, up 3 pair of Stairs front — for which they ask'd 7 sequins a month [164]  I offer'd her 5 which after a Day or two she agreed to take & about Thursday Evening we mov'd from the Inn but in great Trouble as while I was packing up some of my Boxes and Flax. was gone with a Porter to our new Lodgings with others the little Dog frighten'd by some Guns ran away & I could not find her for 2 days when the servant of the Inn found her with a little Roman Girl into whose house she had run, she was very sorry to part with her & I as glad to get her once again in my own Possession, we found ourselves tolerably Comfortable for a strange Place strange faces we had been pretty well used to for some months past the Mistress of the House seem'd a pleasant good natur'd woman rather above the common sort, she chiefly dress'd in a dark Green flannel Gown her flaxen hair chiefly about her Ears fair Complexion Mr F. Page 39v liken'd her in size & manner to his friend Mrs Sanders [165]  The husband seem'd a good kind of man very decent in his appearance & manner he had some occupation in a neighbouring Palace he us'd to market & chiefly dress our dinners for us as neither his wife or the maid knew to Cook anything beyond Alesso [allesso, boiled meat], soup, & Humido [umido, stew], the servant was an Ignorant good natur'd fool somewhat the character of a Fawn the mistress prided herself on being a Roman & the Girl on not being one & indeed this seems to be the way with them all & I may say with all the world prefering their own Country to that of others — there are many things for which I prefer Old England such as Cleanliness honesty & Comfort & yet I believe if dear & partial friends did not bring up the Rear Rome & its Environs would go near to have me as an [...] Inhabitant, we spent the first 3 or 4 weeks going about the City & seeing the Inside of the Palaces & Villas, such as the Borghese Albani &. the churches without the walls &c all in Company with the 2 Englishmen, for the distant things we found the Majors Carriage very convenient & for the Palaces the Expenses were lessen'd on both sides each paying half or rather in turns — & his advantages were Information from Flax— & Company, going one day to see Palazzo Rondini [Rondanini] [166]  poor Flax seeking for the guardaroba [cloakroom] slipt his foot & hit his Ribs against the stone stairs which laid him up almost for 2 or 3 days in the course of which time warm Flannel set him to rights on Sunday 30 of December we drank Chocolate in the City & rode out of the Porta St Sebastian for about 5 miles along the Appian Way [167]  which we found somewhat the worse for time principally owing to its having Page 40 been disturb'd by the moderns searching as I conjecture for antiquities as all along the sides of this Road were superb Edifices Temples & tombs of Illustrious men — the remains of them are still there but they chiefly consist of the brick foundations which serve to give a slight Idea of their magnitude & numbers

It was the custom of the ancient Romans to bury their great men by the highway side perhaps that the sight of their last mansion might be often present to the Eyes of those who liv'd & serve to remind them of their great Actions in defence of their Country & so serve as a stimula to them to do the like, seeing also how honorably they were inter'd & their remembrance handed down to future ages


near the before mention'd Gate is the arch of Nero Claudius Drusus of the ornaments only remains 2 marble Columns we saw a little church built on the ruins of a fine temple of Mars which was sustain'd by a hundred Columns & pleasantly surrounded by Palm trees, this little church is call'd St Mary of the Palms & also Domine quo vadis, because tradition relates that when Peter fled the persecution of Nero he met here our Saviour bearing his cross'd to whom he said Domine quo vadis [Lord, where are you going?], to which our S[aviour] replied eo Romam iterum crucifig[i], {I go to Rome to be crucified a 2d time} after which he disappear'd leaving the print of his feet on a stone which they now shew in the church of St Sebastian & a careful copy of which they shew also in a little rotunda near this spot [168]  — a little further on we saw the foundation &c of the Tomb of the Horatia sister to the famous Horatii [169]  a little further is the ch[urch] of St Sebastian through this you enter into the Catacombs w[h]ere they say the first christians were buried these are a continuation of the same that are in the vineyard near the Porto del Popoli which as I had with difficulty & disagreement seen I did not visit these — they consist of long narrow walks with long Arches one above another for the Bodies of the martyred with the Instruments of their Tortures or some other Indication to make them known, the Ecclesiastiques say there were Page 40v14 Popes & about 100000 Martyrs buried here, & that it Extends 5 leagues I did not go far into them as the Place smelt Close & I was afraid the Torch might go out — among the many ruins on this road side their rises a very beautiful one & in very good preservation respecting its size & Shape the riches & statues &c that were found in it are of course remov'd — It is the Mausoleum of Cecilia Metella rais'd to her memory by her Husband Crassus it is in the form of a high round Tower, placed on a large square Pedestal all built of amazing large stones it has at the top a mural wall & a frieze ornamented with Bulls heads & festoons from whence it is now commonly call'd Capo di Bove — within is a large Chamber where there was a great Urn of white marble destin'd to hold the ashes of the deceas'd this Urn is now in the courtyard of P[alazzo] Farnese we saw near here also in a vineyard the Circus of Caraculla [Caracalla] [170]  It is the most intire of any of them & gives a very good Idea of those Kind of Edifices destin'd for the chariot Race It is of a long Square rounded at one End down the Middle runs a little Bank the which was ornamented with Statues & Columns & 2 Altars where they sacrific'd preceeding the Games at each End serving as [?Rooms] benches seats all round for the spectators, with Portico's for to keep out bad weather & little Towers for Persons of distinction &c —

after having satisfied our Curiosity, we thought it would be but right to do the same by our hunger we had the means in our power having made up a little parcel consisting of a fine ham some Bread Rum &c & a quarter of a Young Goat — we sought out a dining place in Private, it was on the threshold of some ancient Villa in a large field on rising Ground & to be sure we made a hearty meal — the principle Impressions Page 41 were good victuals fresh air & novelty, well season'd with good Appetites—

after this we sought out the Inn about a quarter of a mile distant where the servant had put up the horses the which for some time we could not find however having succeeded we enter'd the miserable place & had some of their wine Our friend got into a dispute with the Landlady about the payment for his horses she like all the other Italians asking much more than the Just Price Flax was the greatest hero, I would say the greatest Peace maker among us, and by slipping an additional Paul into the womans hand unobserv'd by us, she was more pacified & the horses were permitted to be harness'd & we turn'd towards home — in our way or rather a very little out of our way we found the famous fountain of Egeria where Numa (the 2d King of Rome) us'd to retire to, to consult that Nymph who as is said assisted him in making his Laws, it is a very picturesque fountain it is arch'd over & has Niches on each side which formerly held the statues of the Muses in the middle nich is the remains of the Nymph & the whole is overgrown with shrubbery & in a hot day looks delightfully cool & pleasant we drank of the water & found its taste good — near at hand over a little Eminence we found a little church built on the remains of an ancient Temple of Bacchus, as also in the same valley the ruins of the temple of Ridicule erected by the Romans on account of Hannibal being driven back from besieging the city by a violent storm of Rain — when he had advanced his army thus near the gates — In short after having seen these Curiosities & spent a very pleasant day we return'd home to a comfortable dish of Tea & read the Historical accounts of that days Adventure [171] Page 41v

[Villa Borghese]

we visited some beautiful churches — breakfasted at Reevelys — after dinner went to the Villa Borghese the keeper not at home, walk'd about the Grounds which are 4 miles in Circuit & beautifully dispos'd the Garden that surrounds the villa has pleasant shady walks & Fountains the outside of the Villa is ornamented with a great number of fine Basreliefs & in the Cortile also — but of the house I will speak after as I did not see the curiosities till the next day —

the rest of the grounds consist in a Charming rural wood of lofty Pines which spread out their Tops & form a Green Carpet — the ground is hilly which adds to the Beauty & when you have pass'd through this woody Ground you come to a large round Lake of water with a Broad path all round & an Island toward the further side on which is Built a beautiful Temple to Esculapius [Aesculapius] [172]  — the Figure of this Divinity stands in a Principal Nich in front & on each side are goats on the Top are the Figures of Apollo & muses & in the Pediment in front is a basrelief of the ship arriving at the Island on the Tiber with the serpent This Island was form'd they say by throwing into the River all the things even to the trees & grain that belonged to Tarquin the Proud that Tyrant of Rome some time after when Rome was infested with a Plague the Senate sent ambassadors to Greece to seek the cause of this misfortune of the Oracle — these landed on this Island & brought with them from Epidaurus a large serpent which they believ'd to be Esculapius the God of Medicine they Immediately Erected a temple to this reptile Divinity & gave it into the care of certain Priests who made this superstitious People believe that it remain'd alive for many ages — on the ancient temple is now a church — the Island is large & Inhabited 2 bridges cross it into the City but it is a disagreeable part of Rome but to return to the Lake Borghese, the Prince often has the Nobility to dine with him & then there is Musick in this Temple which sounds agreeable over the Canal Page 42 & the company walk & Enjoy themselves amidst all the People of Rome for the Garden & Grounds are Public by the Prince's goodness who even on these particular occasions will not deprive them & indeed the Roman Quality love to be admir'd thus have I seen in the same Instant Dukes Princes Lords Ladies Cardinals Prelates Shopkeepers Peasants all carelessly mingled as nature meant —

beautiful views over the Lake of the distant Country variegated with wood & Plain & villas & bounded by a row of dark brown Mountains — shaded ourselves by a fine wood of Pines enliven'd with the passing multitude & music, dazzled with the diamond Buttons & Cross of the Cardinal Braschi a young handsome man & the Popes nephew & star'd at by the Duchess of Albany Princess of England we often tired ourselves agreeably in these enchanting Grounds but to proceed to the Contents of the House which we went the next Morning to explore it is to be sure most richly Laden with fine Antiques, what pleas'd me most were these

a large vase of white marble with a Bacchanalian dance round it sweetly compos'd — this Flax— copied for Mr Knight [173]  — an Apollo killing the Lizard a Gladiator a pretty Genius — besides these there is a group of Apollo & Daphne by Bernini — the composition is pretty the workmanship exquisite but the faces by no means handsome & the whole rather too much flutter'd — to mention all this collection is impossible it being so numerous up stairs the Rooms are fill'd with Paintings some of them by the best masters one room is painted by Gawaine Hamilton the story of Paris & Helen which did not greatly charm me [174]  but I must perforce Quit this Place — Rich Columns & sarcophogii —

Another day we went to see the ruins of the Baths of Caracella [Caracalla] enough remain to tell us they were very magnificent with respect to size & fame tells us of their rich decorationPage 42v

[St Peter in Vincoli]

the Church of St Peter in Vinculi [Vincoli] so call'd from a Chain which it contains said to be that with which Peter was bound at Jerusalem by Herod — the Empress Eudoxia brought it from the holy Land & when St Leo — the Pope measur'd it with that which the same Apostle wore in the Mamertine Prison at Rome they miraculously united & made one they shew a copy of them but the real chains are kept in Private Custody this church has 3 Isles & 20 white Parian Marble Columns 2 of granite which are 7 feet in Circumference there is a very large monument to Julius 2d by Michael Ange[lo] with a Colossal statue of Moses at the bottom a Sarcophagus he is sitting the table of the Laws are {folded} under his arm & he seems speaking to the People on whom he looks stedfastly It is very extravagant in my opinion [175]  — the remaining figures were done by a Pupil of M[ichel] Ange[lo] himself dying before this work was completed, there is in one of the Chapels a Picture of St Margarite by Guerchino it is a handsome church — the Baths of Titus we enter'd some of the rooms by torch light to see the fresco Paintings which remain on the walls twas here was found the famous Laocoon [176]  In the Church of St Mary of the People is a pretty monument to the Princess Odescalchi Ghigi [Chigi], by Paul Posi, in the courtyard of the Palace Rondinini are Columns Basreliefs & Busts within the Palace are many Basreliefs Statues Busts Paintings by Vandyke & Raphael the staircase to the Palace Ruspoli is reckon'd the finest in Rome it consists of 4 flights 28 steps each, of Parian marble 10 feet long 2 wide & cost 400 livres each one — in the court yard are Busts Statues &c — in the church of St Laurence [Lorenzo] in Lucina is an English inscription to the memory of a Child — in digging near this church they found the solar Quadrant which anciently indicated the hours by means of the Obelisk of Augustus which was also found [at] a little Page 43 distance — the church of St Ignatius is large & rich in Paintings the altars on certain feast days are ornamented with large silver Busts of Saints each I suppose containing some relique, also a large statue of the Patron saint — here we often went to hear music & see a cardinal perform mass

The French Academy is a fine large Palace & contains a great Quantity of Casts from the antiques — there are 12 Pensioners a Director they have an Exhibition of there works every year, the church of Jesus [Il Gesù] is a very magnificent one & has fine music perform'd there on feast days I saw Eight Cardinals attend to perform Mass one Evening it is rich in Pictures Silver Busts & a large silver figure of St Ignatius [177]  {whose garment is set round with precious stones} St Mary in Araciell [Aracoeli] is built on the Place where formerly stood the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus built by Romulus it is ornamented with 22 fine marble Columns taken from the above Temple — the 120 marble steps which lead up to the church were taken from the ruins of a Temple built to the honor of Romulus on Mount Quirinas [Quirinales] — where now stands the Popes Summer Residence, This church is close by the Capitol & Tarpeian Rock —


the Capitol contains a fine collection of Antiques & among them is the Bronze wolf with Romulus & Remus [178]  as also the Effigies of the Geese that preserv'd it in ancient times when the Gauls invaded Rome you mount to it by a flight of an hundred steps in front with a balustrade at the Top, at each corner are the statues of Castor & Pollux holding their horses — Greek workmanship — on the Balustrade are also the trophies of Marius 2 Statues of the sons of Constantine — which were found in his Baths & a [?miliary] Column in the great Square before the building is the Statue of Marcus Aurelius on horseback in Bronze reckon'd fine found in a vineyard near St John de Latran's [Lateran] church [179]  Carlo Moratte said admiring this chef d'ouvre exclaim'd "forget that thou are dead & walk —" this Building in [is] on part of the Page 43v walls of the old Capitol but is by no means like what that was on the Staircases are Placed some basreliefs & parts of a plan engrav'd on Marble of ancient Rome — which formerly was a pavement to a little temple dedicated to Romulus & Remus in the courtyards are many remains of the ancient Magnificence of this city 2 Captive Kings [180]  in touchstone a long Head in Bronze of Commodus fine there is also another Colossal Head in Marble of Domitien [Domitian] there are 2 Feet & Hands with parts of Legs & arms of a Colossal figure 41 feet high which in all probability belong to the marble head but they say these belong to a figure which Luculus [Lucullus] brought from Portus here is also a basrelief of a mourning figure {conquer'd Province} like Bank's in the Abbey, [181]  also the rostral Column of Duillius [Duilius] for his victory over the Carthaginians on the Staircase are some of the Basreliefs from the arch of Septimus Severus this arch cross'd the Corso but is now no more, —

the fine things contain'd in this collection are Innumerable

[Forum Romanum]

Close at hand is the Forum Romanum now call'd Campo vaccino, it is full of fine remains such as 3 beautiful fluted Columns with their Capitals of corinthian order — belonging to the Temple of Jupiter Tonans rais'd by Augustus for having escap'd a Thunderbolt which fell at his feet, they are buried half way in the earth the ground having been dug up & rout'd in search of antiquities, 8 Columns belonging to the Temple of Concord built by the Dictator Furius Camillus when Peace was made between the Senate & People, It was in this Temple that Cicero being Consul assembled the senate & condem'd Lentulus & Categus [Cathegus] accomplices in the Cataline Conspiracies the arch of Septimus severus erected to his honor for having subjugated the Parthians & other barbarous nations — It is of white marble has 3 arches & has Basreliefs this is much Buried in the earth [182]  it had a staircase withinside to mount to the Top where stood the Statue of the Emperor in his Trimphal Car with six horses

Page 44 where the church of St Luke is was a Temple of Mars Erected by Augustus where they met to treat on affairs of war joining to this little church is the Academy of St Luke we saw 2 or 3 pretty Sketches of groups in Terra Cotto for the medal some little indifferent Paintings by Angelico & many other things in the way of the arts — of no note — we saw poor Raphael's Skull — which is kept here —

here are also the remains of the Temple which the Senate Built to the Memory of Antoninus Pius & his wife Faustina it consists of a Portico & 10 fine Corinthian Columns with a Frieze of Griffins & Candelabra —

there are large remains in Brick of the Temple of Peace built by Vespasien [Vespasian] it was reckon'd the most superb in Rome both for size & magnificence three large arches of it are now standing the only Column that escap'd of this building now stands before the church of St Maria Maggiore the inside walls were plated with Bronze Gilt & held an assemblage of Paintings & Sculpture of the most famous Greek Artists it was here also that Vespasien put the riches that he brought from Syria & the spoils of the Temple of Jerusalem — the Romans also in times of war place'd their most valuable Treasure here as a place of safety they say that when it was burning in the reign of Commodus the violence of the fire having melted the Bronze Gold & Silver &c they saw these Metals run down the Forum like rivers — a little church now stands near this built on the vestibule of the Golden house of Nero & in the Garden of the Convent are the remains of a Temple of the sun & moon —

[Arch of Titus]

The Arch of Titus faces that of Septimus Severus at the other end of the Forum, this arch was Erected in honor of Titus Vespasien for his taking Jerusalem it has but one arch & is ornamented with basreliefs on one is the Emperor in his triumphal Char[iot] accompanied by the Lictors &c & on another the famous Candle Stick of seven branches the tables of the Law, Vases & other spoils which he brought from Jerusalem

Page 44v On the opposite side of this Forum to the Temple of Peace is the Palatine Hill on which this City was first built on which in succeeding times the Caesars had their Palace much ruins of which are still to be seen but chiefly Foundations the extent of these is very large —

at some distance from this in the same Forum are 3 most beautifull Columns but to what Temple or Edifice they originally belong'd is very Uncertain among the antiquarians of this part of the world some think they are the remains of the Comitia Curiatie [Curiata] in which they assembled to establish Laws Elect Priests & punish the Guilty others think that it is part of the Temple of Jupiter Stator, here are many other remains this being a very rich spot when Rome was in her Glory —


passing through the arch of Titus we were immediately surpriz'd with the grandest ruin of a large Amphitheatre [183]  this was the most Celebrated Edifice of ancient Rome twas began to be built anno 72 after Xt [Christ] by Flavius Vespasien & finish'd by his Son Titus who spent on it ten millions of Crowns & employ'd 12 thousand Jews whom he brought as Slaves from Jerusalem it was destin'd for the Combat of the Gladiators, wild Beasts &c. it has four stages or story's with arcades all round for the spectators of which it held one hundred & seven thousand the arcades were cover'd from the rain by a Tent which ran round the Top its circumference exterior is 1612 feet — interior 800 its height is 156 feet you enter it by 4 Great Gates, in some of the Persecutions the Christians where [were] deliver'd to the wild beasts in this Place — it has now 14 little chappels in it built to their memory & an altar in the Middle it is much visited by 2 sets of People — the devout catholics come to say their prayers at the different stations that are set up when they have committed any sin without which the Priest will not forgive them, & the Christian Pilgrims who Journey from England to see the Curiosities of this enchanting City come here to admire this grand ruin of the Mistress of the world —

those who wish to Indulge serious reflexion may here find ample Food — they (sic) Eyes are delighted with the most magnificent Ruin that is perhaps anywhere to be found, they call to mind the cruelties that have been perform'd in it & the Page 45 Inexpressible sufferings of their fellow Creatures — & they see at this moment thousands of others who are made dupes of by a few designing men passing their time in ridiculous Ceremonies & Ignorant Superstitions

Near to this is placed the arch of Constantine very rich in Basreliefs the best of which were taken from the Arch of Trajan the art itself being in a very bad taste about the time this was Erected, the Senate & People rais'd this to Constantine for his victory over the Emperor Maxentius, on the Ponte Molle by this delivering the City of a Tyrant & the church of a most cruel Persecutor, in the distance are seen ruins of an Aqueduct built by Claudius to bring water to mount Palatine, a fine open Street leads from the Colliseum to the Church of St John de Lateran, in this street is the church of St Clement in which is a Picture by Masaccio [184]  the only one of this early Painter in Rome tis the life of St Catherine there are some fine group[s] of heads in it the content is inhabited by a Civil set of Black & white Irish Friars — the church is very ancient & has different desks to read the Epistle & Gosple —

[St John Lateran]

we were much Struck with the magnificence of the Ch[urch] of St John de Latran it has a fine open area before in the middle of which is a Fountain & a very large Egyptian Obelisk which formerly Ramasses [Ramesses] king of Egypt set up in the Temple of the Sun in Thebes but when that Capitol was destroy'd Cambyses drew it from the ruins Augustus wish'd to bring it to Rome but found the undertaking too great Constantine afterwards had it brought down the Nile to Alexandria & his son Constance passed it into Italy on a Vessel of 300 oars of singular construction & he placed in the Grand Circus & in 1588 Pope Sixtus the fifth drew it from those ruins & placed it where it now stands it is of red granite & together with the cross at the Top it is 140 feet high this church is reckon'd the first & most Principal of any in the world the Pope is Bishop of it & immediately after his exaltation to the chair he goes in Solemn procession to take possession of it & he gives his Public Blessing to the People from the Balcony in front a grand Portico {supports the front sustain'd by Columns} it has five Ilses [aisles] seperated by long Pillars there are the Colossal Statues of the Apostles in niches with Verd antique Columns on each side, & it is richly ornamented with Monuments Statues &c — It has several very Page 45v large chaples each big enough for a Common siz'd Church these are most magnificently adorn'd with Paintings Gilding Statues Columns of every beautiful Marble Monuments of Popes &c the high Altar is Insulated [185]  & the Pavilion which rises over it is supported by 4 columns among other reliques they say they have the heads of Sts Peter & Paul shut up in Busts of Silver ornamented with diamonds & to these the devout pay Solemn adoration on certain feast days we also saw a piece of the holy Table here in the easter week on which our saviour eat his last supper what I saw was a Polish'd peace of brown wood about a yard square I believe it was [...] but it is impossible for me to mention all the riches I saw in this Church — I shall therefore only add that there are two fine Organs & that at a few Paces from the side door is the Baptistery of Constantine it was built by Constantine is of an Octagon form the Baptismal Font is in the middle it is a fine Urn of Basalte over which are 2 basreliefs one representing the Baptism of our Saviour by St John & the other the Baptism of Constantine by St Silvester Pope this Font is inviron'd with a fine Balustrade & cover'd with a high Cupulo sustain'd by 8 Columns of Porphery — these support 8 other Columns of white marble & a large architrave & an Entablature on which are 8 Pictures by Andrea Sacchi memoirs of the Lives of the Virgin & John Baptist it is in this Place that they give the Sacrament on the Saturday in Easter week & whitsuntide to Jews & Pagans, who are willing to become Roman Catholics

there are four chapels round this Baptistery all richly ornamented with Paintings & possessing the Bodies of many martyrs — on the other side of the great church is the Palace which was formerly occupied by the Popes but in later times they thought it better to build themselves a Palace near St Peters & the Castle the last of which they counted a good Security in case of any Invasion — they therefore had a Cover'd way leading from their Residence to the said Castle this was done by Gregory 11 — at present it is inhabited by a hundred & fifty Page 46 young female Orphans who are employ'd in working silk —

The Church of St Maria Maggiore was built on the ruins of a Temple to Juno they say the plan for it was wonderfully traced by snow which fell in the night of the 5 of August 352 — having been preceeded by a vision it is very large & rich & has several great Chapels much decorated with mausoleums to Pope's & Cardinals the chapels richly lin'd with fine marbles it has 3 Isles seperated by Columns of White Marble in one of these chapels they keep the Cradle of the Infant Jesus which they say was sent to Rome by Constance Mother of Constantine — On Christmas Eve we went to 2 or 3 churches to hear the Music & Singing after which we went to this where after the Cardinal had sung mass & other duties performed they made a procession round the church it consisted of cardinal Bishops & other church Dignatories a vast number of large lights Tapers Crosses Crucifixes Madonnas & at last well accompanied came the holy Cradle set round with diamonds & in it a little wax Infant in Swaddling Cloaths with a crown on his head — this was taken into the little subterrain chapel made for the purpose where is a large wax figure of a Maddonna & those who wish may by courtesy descend to say their ave maria's & I suppose leave presents — they rock the cradle & some good pieces of Music are perform'd — among them Correlli's [Corelli's] Lullaby it was 3 O'Clock in the Morning when we got home — the next day we rose late visited some churches & our friend din'd with us on a Roast Turkey &c — after which we walk'd in & took cognizance of the folly of the Corso — I was at a loss to say whether those in carriages or those on foot were the most to be pitied for their folly, the former are deck'd out in all their Gaity their horses dress'd with Ribbons & 5 or six footmen Cramm'd behind & thus for hours together will they stream one after another up & down this street on purpose to be look'd at & I have since been assur'd that some of these People who are not Quality — for the sake of making this appearance must go without their & next Day's dinner & perhaps were they to be examin'd their under garments would Page 46v not be found worth taking off a Dunghill this I have been assur'd of as a Fact by those [who] have resided in & honor'd the supreme vanity & folly of this Country — the People who are on foot line the Street on each side to satisfy their Curiosity & spend an Idle hour though at the hazard of bring run over now & then here being no regular pathway as in London & yet they renew this every afternoon without any variation except that on holidays they are better dress'd have their best carriages & favorite horses some of the latter I have seen very handsome but their carriages are very Ill made nevertheless as Gay as painting & Gilding can make them we were soon tired of this & return'd home to view the Sequel from our windows when Dusk came they all gradually retir'd some of coffee houses some to Conversationes —

[Villa Albani]

another day we took a ride to the Villa Albano [Albani] where there are very fine & Extensive Gardens with a modern antique Temple in Ruins an arcade fill'd with choice Statues & Busts & the villa as full of Beauties in that way as it will hold they must be sought for in the Description Book [186]  for for me to Enumerate them would be an Endless work the floor[s] of most the of the rooms are of variegated marble & there are some most beautiful Specimens in some of the rooms that are lin'd with them the ceilings richly Painted & the Furniture handsome It was here the famous Winkleman [187]  used to dwell how happy must he have been to live undisturb'd amidst the finest things in which his Soul so much delighted —

[St. Peter's]

We went to see the Palace Barbarini [Barberini] — but when we got there we heard they were creating a new Cardinal at St Peters so we left Flax to view the curiosities & antiques & we betook ourselves to St Peters but the ceremony had been finish'd some time before we got there we heard some music & admir'd this vast church anew — I was as much delighted as I was the first time I was taken to this Place, the large area & fine Colonade [188]  Page 47 on each side the 2 beautiful fountains from when[ce] Spues a prodigious Quantity of water, a certain Lady (as the story goes) being brought to see these Fountains after she had admir'd them a long while desir'd they might be stop't, as she had seen them long enough & it was a pity to waste so much fine clear water —

a large Obelisk of Oriental Granite is place'd in the Middle of this area, it was brought from Egypt by Caligula & plac'd in his Circus, which was near where St Peters now stands this Church was first built by Constantine on the spot where St Peter was Buried — this being ready to fall it was taken down & the present Edifice had its foundation begun by Pope Nicolas the 5th — but little was done untill Julius 2 who had a genius for great Enterprizes — he consulted many architects & prefer'd the designs of Bramante, [189]  this Pope laid the first stone 1506 — after the deaths of both Pope & Architect, Leo 10 consulted many artists among which was Raphael, & after his death Balthazar [Baldassare] Peruzzi who thought of altering the design of Bramante, after him San Gallo [Antonio Sangallo] offer'd a new plan to Paul 3, who after San Gallo's death gave the Direction of it to Michael Angelo, he perfected the plans of the others & gave to it its present majestic & simple form, he made the designs of the cupola & thought to make the facade like that of the Pantheon, but he dying the work was given to Vignole [Vignola], & Pierre Ligorio & after them to Jacques de la Portu [della Porta] — at last in the time of Paul 5 Charles Maderne [Maderno] finish'd it & Bernini added the fine Colonade in the time of Alexander 7th; the present Pope has added a new sacristy, thus from the first Building of this great Temple by Constantine or rather of the present Edifice by Nicholas 5th about 1450 it has been in the hands of 14 Principal Architects & 15 Pontifs. Many Popes of little note not doing anything to it; but it is at last a truly superb Building — you mount to the Church by a large flight of marble steps at the foot of which stand the statues of Sts Peter & Paul, the facade has a large Portico from whence Page 47v his Holiness Blesses the Multitude & Destroys certain Bulls & Excommunication by tearing certain Papers & throwing them to the winds — over the Principal Gate is a basrelief of our Savior giving the Keys to Peter & over the Interior of [the] same Gate is the famous mosaic of Giotto of our Saviour walking on the water, [190]  on each end of this church or vestibule to which you have Entrance by 5 Gates there are 2 Equestrian Statues of Constantine & Charles Magne the Pavement is of color'd marble & is ornamented with the Statues of many Popes & facing the mosaic of Giotto is a Basrelief of Bernini's where our Saviour is giving his sheep to St Peter —

there are 5 door[s] to enter the church by but one of them is the holy door which is only open'd in the year of the Jubilee every 25 years in great Solemnity by the Pope, this door has a brass cross Gilt on it the Bottom of which is Kiss'd bright & somewhat worn by the frequent visitations of the Pious, who rub their heads on it & kiss it with great fervor — the Inside of this church Strikes you with wonder it is so large & so richly ornamented it is 571 feet long from the door to the chair of St Peter which is at the end of the church where you come to the great altar but every[...] is in such Just proportion that at first you do not see its enormous size — & the chancel is 85 feet wide & 138 high from the Pavement to the Top of the Dome — the side Isles Conduct to four very large Chapels in one of them is a famous group of M[ichel] Ange[lo] of the Virgin with a dead Saviour laying on her lap [191]  near this is an ancient Tomb with basreliefs which serves for the baptismal Font & a Column as they say from the Temple of Solomon against which our Saviour leant many times when he preach'd in the Temple — a monument to Queen Christina of Sweden on which they represent her abjuration of Lutheranism several very large Monuments some in Marble some in Bronze to deceas'd Popes with rich altars of Lapis Lazuli & other precious Stones — under an altar reposes the Bodies of Saints Processe [Processus] & Martinien [Martinian] 2 Roman officers the guards of Peter when he was in prison & under another is the Body of Patronilla [Petronilla] Page 48 Daughter of St Peter you mount to the Tribune by 2 Steps of Porphyre of very great length, where you see the chair of St Peter, which is shut up in another of gilt Bronze two angels guard it with the Tiara & Clefs of the Church & 4 Enormous Bronze Doctors support it 2 of the Latin & 2 of the Greek church viz St Augustin & St Ambroise [Ambrose], St John Chrisostome [Chrysostom] & St Athanasius [...] feet high — the veritable chair is of wood incrusted with Iron the former Popes made use of it as did Peter himself — over this is a large Glory of Bronze in the Middle of which is the holy Ghost in the form of a Dove & a Cloud of angels &c this Superb Throne was made by Order of Alexander 7 executed by Bernini it Cost 573000 Livres of France which makes 30000-55 Pounds of our Money & the weight of metal is said to be 152000 weight of mark On Each side are the Monuments of Paul 3d & Urban 8 the next wonder of this Church is the Baldaquin which is in the middle of the Upper Cross at this altar no one says Mass but the Pope, he mounts to it by many steps all carpeted, & under it lays the Body of St Peter being the spot where he was first enterr'd — here Pope Anadel 2d successor of Peter had a chapel built & enclos'd his Body in a marble tomb & afterwards St Silvester & Constantine rebuilt the chapel & enrich'd it & the same remains now underground the present Edifice being built upon it you descend to this Subterraen by a grand double staircase with a rich Balustrade round which there are more than a hundred Lamps of Silver Continually burning, this inner Sanctum is always Shut by a door of Bronze Gilt & chas'd in openwork through which you see the inner Sanctuary with lamps burning — the inside of this Confessional or outer chapel is all lin'd with rich Marbles & has 4 fine alabaster Columns in 2 niches are Statues in Bronze of Peter & Paul & contains other riches — the superb Baldaquin which Crowns this Place & cover[s] the high Altar is of Bronze & the work of Bernini it has 4 Columns of Bronze & is 122 feet high — it is form'd of Columns Angels Tiaras Sheep & a Cross at the top which alone is 12 feet although it does not appear above 2 or 3 also in a Painting of one of the Page 48v Prophets who holds a Pen which seems to be about 2 feet they assure us nine — in the Frieze of the Dome are 16 large windows, Just before you arrive at this Baldaquin you pass St Peter himself who sits in great Majesty to receive the compliments of Passers by he is made of Bronze which was formerly in the form of a Jupiter he has lost one of his toes nearly with much Kissing — these things with many others each as fine Mosaics Pictures Statues &c does this great church contain, of the subterrain I will make mention when I have seen it & also of some the [...] belonging to the holy week —

We went up a very high Staircase {141 steps} to get to the platform then pass'd over or rather between the Dome very Curiously, & squeezing up a very narrow jut containing about 15 Stairs we found ourselves in the Brazen Ball which I reckon would hold about 12 Person pretty conveniently but they say sixteen through a large Crevice we could see the surrounding Country but our voices reverberated so much & being conscious I was so very high I was rather in a fright & soon left that Exalted Situation much admiring the Contrivance of the way to it — the Ball is 8 feet in Diameter & the cross is 13 feet high to the which also you may mount on the Outside by an Iron Ladder & the Dome itself is larger than the Pantheon being 204 feet


the Pantheon is the Most Entire of any of the ancient Edifices it was built 25 Years before the Vulgar aera by Marcus Agrippa Son in Law to Augustus & was dedicated to all the Gods having all their statues of the richest Metals & Precious Stones from whom it is call'd Pantheon but the Romans [...] call it Rotonda, it is now dedicated to all the Saints & even in the time of Pope Urban 8 1623 there was so much Bronze remaining about this Temple that he had made of it the Baldaquin & St Peter's Chair with the large Figures of the Doctors & beside these several pieces of Canon for the castle of St Angelo

Page 49 The Interior of this Temple is a perfect Circle, it is as broad as it is high that is 137 feet inside measure, it is only lighted by a Circular opening at the Top of the Dome {of 27 feet} the shape of this Dome is beautiful & the church very Light you may mount to this aperture on the outside of the Dome by a Staircase

in the Contour of this Temple are six niches where they plac'd the six Superior Gods of Paganism & facing the Dome is a great nich where was the Colossal Statue of Jupiter {ye} avenger before each nich are 2 Columns of yellow antique Marble & these with their Palastres sustain the Girdle of the Vault above is an Entableture over which is a second order of architecture in which are 14 niches, wherein they plac'd their Gods these are now Empty the Niches below serve as chapels & have altars & Paintings & Statues modern the walls are lin'd with different color'd Marbles & the Pavement is of great Squares of marble much worn in the centre of which is a circle sunk to answer the opening at Top, to catch the Rain & pass it off, belonging to this church is a Brotherhood of Painters Scupltors & Architects for which the greatest artists have their small monuments erected there — in the Entrance [?plot] —

there is a Bust of Winkelman — Corelli Raphael Poussin &c Behind this Rotunda were formerly the Garden & Baths of Agrippa that celebrated General & dear friend of Augustus who also added the Portico to this Building —

[Church of St Agnes]

We rode to the Church of St Agnes about 2 Miles out of the Porta Pia passing [. . .] between dull walls belonging to differ[ent] villas — this Church was Erected — at the desire of Constantia his daughter on the spot where the saint was Enterr'd you descend into it by a staircase of Marble of 35 steps on the wall are some little remains of basreliefs & one of them very pretty of children, the church is separated into 3 Isles by a double row of antique Columns one over the other 4 of which are from the holy Gate the high al[t]ar is supported by 4 large granite Columns — in one of the Chapels Page 49v is an antique Candelabra & on the altar a head of our Saviour by M[ichel] Ange[lo] the People at Prayers were very few & the Parson or Priest who was performing Mass at the high altar seeing Strangers come in soon dispatch'd his Business & ran after us to shew us the round Temple belonging to this church, they say it was a Temple of Bacchus because of an ancient Mosaic of children & Grapes which ran round the vaulted roof, — but is it more generally believed to have [been] built by Constantine for a Baptistery for the two Constances his sister & daughter it is a perfect round with a Vaulted roof & Cupola which is supported by 2 rows of Columns of different Marbles in the middle is an altar under which reposes the Body of St Constance & in a Niche facing is a large tomb of Porphyre ornamented with Basreliefs this was brought from the Mausoleum of Hadrian & because the basrelief represents Bunches of the Vine with Children playing they call it the Tomb of Bacchus it is a pretty little Temple & the Priest was very Civil & I believe also very Poor he was very thankful for 3 Pauls about 15 pence English he told us if we liked to see Medals the Superior of the Order had some very fine ones & he would ask him the favor to shew them to us we permitted him to ask & our wish was granted we mounted into the private chamber of the good old Friar a thing not common for Ladies & he took much delight in shewing us his treasures till we e'en became tired & with much difficulty were permitted to depart we were all very hungry & had some cold provision in the carriage with Wine Rum &c but coming down the stairs which lay near the Kitchen we were accosted with such savory smells that made me long & indeed I dare say if I had not been of the Party the Men would Page 50 have been invited to partake of the Repast but although the old Friar permitted me in his room he did not dare to Introduce me among the rest, I left even the smell with great reluctance but much thank'd the old man for his Civility being spokesman for the whole Party we retir'd into a Private Road & eat a hearty dinner we had extented (sic) our ride in the Morning far beyond the aforesaid church to an {old} Bridge called Nomentanus built by Narses it has a tower built over the middle — somewhat further were the Vineyards of Seneca, Ovid Quintius & Martial, the Villa of Faonte the freeman of Nero on each side the road are large remains of Tombs &c

We return'd to the City through the Porta Salora near which was the Campus Sceleratus where they buried alive those vestal virgins who had been defil'd — this is now a private vineyard — we got home to Tea about ave marie or dusk having visited some [?churches] Just within the gate & seeing the vestiges of the Temple of Venus & Cupid it seems to have been Considerable,

[Porta Maggiore]

the Porta Maggiore we found worth our attention on account of the remains of an ancient Aqueduct which passes over it which led three waters to Rome from 45 miles distant these 3 waters were Convey'd by 3 Conduits the lower one was the water of Martia [Marcia] in the middle was that of Tepula & the Upper one was of Julia, it was the Emperor Claudius that built this Gate & join'd these waters together repairing the Conduits & bringing the waters to the City you see on the Gate Inscriptions one to the Emperor Vespasien & Titus and one to Honorius beside that of Claudius, this water supplies the Fountain of Moses at the Termini we went into a pleasant vineyard finding the Gate open & in the distance a Temple in ruins, we were suffer'd to view it unmolested it is said to be of Minerva Medica it is Octagon & the remains is only of Brick which I Page 50v suppose like most of the other Temples was lin'd with Marble, Mr F or rather the Major purchas'd a piece of Alabaster which against the sun was beautifully transparent the Man had the conscience to ask 7 Pauls & took 7 Baioches that is he ask'd 3 & 3 & took the 3 pence farthing the roof of this temple was rais'd & a large round opening in the Top there were Niches wherein the Deities had been plac'd with a principal one for Minerva herself, there is in the same Vineyard the Columbarium of the Aruntian Family it is in 2 small rooms underground with Cinerary Urns but the door which led to these was lock'd {&} the man who had the key was not in the way so we could not see them at this time, we pick'd much of the young Brocoli which was very good, in short we spent a charming day

[Holy Mangers]

this being Christmas tide in most of the Churches they dress'd up holy Mangers & we like Equal fools went to see them — we found in some Figures almost as large as life, they represented a Woody Place with Oxen sheep &c and under a kind of Bower {or rural Coverture} was the Cradle with the Infant in Swaddling cloaths and cround with a silver crown, the Virgin bending over & admiring him, Joseph was generally represented coming from his Labors dress'd like a good honest Country Man in one I think he was sawing wood just without the Cave or whatever else they meant in some there was little John the Baptist attending dress'd in his camels hair Jacket, the shepherds also &c the whole church is darken'd & this is lighted from behind & between the Scenery the whole making a very pretty deception for children of all ages & Sizes for this being the time of the Year that this City is full of strangers they all flock to see all that Page 51 is to [be] seen good bad or Indifferent I must in truth say that for 3 of [or] 4 times they pleas'd me 12 days after Xtmas they make a little alteration such as taking away the shepherds & placing the Kings who bring presents &c in private houses many People make up little Holy Mangers the woman in the house where I liv'd had one of Paper something like a little sixpenny shew with Prints & before this she had a little lamp continually burning sometimes when I pass'd by her Room & she not there I took pity on the waste of oil & blew out the lights but I constantly found light up again — sometimes they raise curious Pieces of scenery against the walls of houses also — but enough of Mangers —

the M[ajor] Supp'd with us the last night of the old year & we all sang in the new together not without many thoughts on my part of Friends in old England

Tuesd. 31. In the church of Jesus we heard Mass perform'd by Cardinals 8 or 9 attended there was some good music & a brilliant shew of lights, {we} went to the Opera all the Performers men some of them look'd so much like women that I was almost deceiv'd 2 or 3 good Songs the Ballet very Pretty the defeat of the Amazons

January 1st [1788] — fine music in St Maria Maggiore the host Elevated in the Ch[urch] of Jesus with Music the Devotion of the Country & working People when the Host is elevated thumping their breasts & Groaning Crying &c is astonishing

[Vatican Library]

We saw the Library of the Vatican the Books are in closets their numbers are very great & many Curious Manuscripts are to be found here the Building is very large somewhat in the form of the letter T— the principal hall was built by Sixtus 5 it is divided into 2 Nefs [naves] separated by 6 large Pilastres it is 198 feet long & 49 broad, it is painted on the outside of the armorys with views of Rome, & a Picture of the Tiburtine Sybil who burnt 6 of Her nine books & oblig'd Tarquin to purchase the remaining 3 for the price that she as (sic) Page 51v requir'd for the Nine, [192]  the 2 Galleries which are at the extremity of this hall are each 300 toises long [193]  & on the Tops of the armories are plac'd a Number of fine Etruscan vases here is also a fine Collection of 350 Medals of Emperors many fine Cameos &c & precious stones of all Kinds — we here saw an original Letter of the Queen [...] also the original Paintings belonging to the works of [...] from which Madam Dacier took her plates & many Curious things besides — [194] 

[Museum Pium]

But surely the most Interesting Place in Rome is the Popes Collection of Antique Marbles begun by Clement 14 & liberally carried on by Pius 6 now reigning — in the first {outer} room which is a kind of Portico divided by 2 great arches — there is a sarcophagus found in the Sepulchres of the Scipio's [195]  & some Candelabres 2 with fine basreliefs on their bases & other Figures

then you pass into an Octagon Courtyard decorated with Portico's & Supported by Antique Columns [196]  in the middle is a fountain with a large basin of Porphiry 41 ft in Circumference of one Piece in the Niches under this Portico are Lucius Verus a fine statue of Antinous esteem'd as the most famous Model of fine Nature Emperor Commodus, or rather Hercules himself the famous & inimitable group of Laocoon & his sons the beholder must sympathize with the suffring of this unfortunate Father & his sons it was call'd by M Ange a miracle of art, & was found in the baths of Titus he is thus tormented & his 2 sons with Serpents for having [...] —

the Artists are believ'd to [be] Athenodorus [Athanadoros] & his sons Agasandre [Agesandros] & Polydore [Polydoros] Rhodiens —

Page 52 Then are our Eyes feasted with the divine Apollo Belvidere [Belvedere] [197]  which one is never tired of contemplating & this one Figure gives a fine Idea of all the Gods & heroes in Homer such majesty Beauty & Irresistable Power pervades throughout with respect to Appollo himself It is generally thought the Artist has taken the moment where he has just Kill'd the Python, but others think differently — here is also the famous Torso suppos'd by Winkleman to be part of Hercules deified also here are many Sarcophagi & beautiful Columns of different kinds of precious Marbles. then you pass into a long room fill'd with all manner of animals & many done to admiration 2 Colossal figures at each end, the Nile & Tiber to the right of this hall is a magnificent Gallery full of Statues — the pretended Cleopatria or Nymph asleep, a Narcissus a pretty Group of a Satyr & Nymph many Busts, Urns amongs[t] these is the Urn of Agate where were the Ashes of Augustus a fine Red antique Fawn & a beautiful Crouching Venus a little room with the Pavement of ancient Mosaic 2 red Marble Curule Chairs — an Apollo dress'd like a woman Apollo the Lizard Catcher a fine Statue in another large round Room are the Muses long Figures the Pavement of ancient mosaic the Idea of this room is taken from the Pantheon — here are in short many rooms fill'd with many things that are truly beautiful & rare among the works of art —

The Popes Garden belonging to this palace is very pretty It is hilly woody & much in the English taste except that it has many fountains & some Statues in it — & here the likeness fails —

[Pyramid of Cestius]

Page 52v we went to see the Tomb of Caius [Gaius] Cestius [198]  it is in the Form of a Pyramid & a Monument of the magnificence of the ancient Romans since so great an Edifice was rais'd only to a Citizen who liv'd a little before the time of Augustus it is 110 ft high without counting the Base which is 86 ft wide they have made a little door which leads to a Square Room 20 feet long & 13 high in the middle of the Pyramid it was here that the Urn was plac'd which held the ashes of the deceas'd it had been prettily painted in Fresco some little bits of which remain'd but the Torches with which People enter have greatly defac'd the Paintings It is in the meadow which is along side this Pyramid where the English are buried who are so unfortunate as to die out of their own Country away from the care of their Relations and friends, at some little distance were the Baths of Heliogabalus that young monster of all Iniquity also the Mons Testaceous [Monte Testaccio] a great hill made by broken Pieces of Pottery as this spot was formerly given to the Potters for their waste ground who till then us'd to throw their litters into the Tiber which at last began to be Interrupted in its Course for the antient Romans made great use of burnt clay for wine jars basreliefs Statues Cinerary Urns, Water Jars & the like this mount is now reckon'd to be 160 ft high on a base of 500 ft round they have now dug at the foot of this to make Caverns for their wine — we had a pleasant ride round this Hill — we Saw the Justinianian [Giustiniani] Palace fine Gardens with Fountains & good basreliefs — the Palace very spacious full of good Pictures & a Number of Statues all in disorder one of the Statues was of an Etruscan Vestal I found to resemble Page 53 my great favorite Eliza Younge [199]  the which Colonel Cam[pbell] has since purchas'd & it is gone before me to old England [200] 

3d went to {see} the ruins of the Baths of Antoninus Carac[alla] found them of large Extent — in the Evening went to the opera — 4 at home Iron'd Muslins; rain'd —

5 saw Circus of Flora & Temple a round bricked Temple [201] 

6 saw the Palace of the Caesars [202]  fine Capitals strew'd about the Gardens — saw the Ch[urch] of St. Peter in Vincoli see p. 84

7 & 8 at home bad weather 2 M — (sic)

[Albano - Velletri - Cisterna]

Wed. 9 of January — after a good Breakfast, having sent all things to Mr Devear's & given up our Lodgings & disputing a little with the Landlady for being unreasonably discontented, we set off about 10 O'Clock for Naples we made a round about way to St John's Gate & the Road soon became almost impassable indeed 2 or 3 times we were oblig'd to turn into the field which was very uneaven & Clayey, Much rain having fell for 2 or 3 days before, so that for 2 or 3 Miles we were not only threatened with an overthrow, but also of being swallow'd up in the depth of the Mire — but after much Fear on my side & more Care on the Majors who drove us, we got into a good pav'd Road which took us to Albano, about 12 miles from Rome It was about 3 O'Clock & we were both Cold Hungry & discontented, the sides of the Road {had} set forth remains of ancient Tombs & the Fields were ornamented with large Remains of noble Aqueducts which formerly Conducted water to Rome & which in their present mutilated State serv'd to give a good Idea of that City's antient Grandeur, & us an opportunity for Contemplation the which at times however was impertinently Interrupted by the above mention'd Fears

Page 53v we had supplied ourselves with bread & a large boild Ham, butter & cheese &c, Intending sometimes to dine on the Road in some pleasant Spot without being Confin'd always to stop at an Inn, & this we found both cheaper & more pleasant, for although it was Winter time yet the weather proving very favorable, the midday sun was sufficently warm to make these our Rural Repasts most comfortable — but to Return

we had arriv'd at Albano at a very awkward time, being 3 hours too late for to get a Dinner & 4 too soon for supper, so we satisfied our hunger from our own provisions & order'd a good Fire & a Pot of water for to make a Dish of Tea the People wonder'd at our wanting hot water but set it down to the score of Cleanlyness — We eat & drank merrily & warm'd ourselves Comfort[abl]y & as it rain'd a little we could {not} walk about the Town, we were therefore confin'd to our little miserable yet comfortable room, with an old Paper window which when open we had a fine Prospect of the Country, & {ye} sea about 4 miles off —

we spent the Evening in writing, Reading, & making all proper enquiries about the Roads for the following day, the account given of them was tolerable — which somewhat rais'd my Spirits — and after a tolerable Supper (for 6 Pauls a head) & {a} good nights rest we took a Dish of our own Chocolate & set off about Eight o Clock & found the Road very good, & delightfully pleasant we rode along a most beautiful Lake & soon began to wind through the Mountains which seperating here & there let in pleasant & unexpected views of the distant Country bounded Page 54 by the sea — we stopt at Velitri [Velletri] & found a good Inn where the horses rested for 2 hours they having worked on rising Ground [203]  Velitri is a dirty Hilly Town, but the descent to it round the Hills is very pleasant in a little Square is the Bronze statue of Urban 8 we din'd & made enquiry where we had best stop to sleep that Night & were told at the next Village Cisterno [Cisterna] —

[In the Marshes]

we set off & got to Cisterno about 3 O'Clock the roads were very good the weather very fine & the hour rather Early all of which together with a great misunderstanding of some Questions & answers with a villager who thinking we enquir'd at how many miles distant we could get fresh Post horses told us about Eight, now our Question tended to know how far it was to the next Town — thus receiving his answer as belonging to our intended Question we mov'd on — rather down hill the view charming but this carelessness & disobedience of the advice given us by the Veletrian Host — caus'd us to repent, we found it rather a long Eight miles & dusk coming quickly on before we could perceive any signs of a house much less a Village — & although on a good road yet were we in the notorious unhealthy Marshes, the which is (like Penelope's story) to drain / an endless work, the endeavor has been undertook by several Popes at a great Expence but to little purpose — the Present Pontif carries on this work with great spirit constantly imploying 2000 Men {from 2 to 4 Pauls each man} to dig trenches for the water to collect itself in one stream — in this place were we when darkness overtook us, but Fortune at the same time favor'd us with the distant view of a white house which we took to be an Inn, or at least a Decent Posthouse where we might remain that Night or at worse where we might gain Intelligence that we were not far distant from the expected Village —

But on our approach we found the white house was only half finish'd being in destination & preparation only for what we Suspected it really to be — close to it was a little dirty Page 54v hovel surrounded by Thatch'd tents like little haycocks here we found some miserable dirty fellows of whom we made all necessary Enquiries & receiv'd for answer that it was Eight Mile to the next Post but there was no Inn, & it was 16 miles or more to the first Town where we could Possibly find Residence — but we might have post Horses — our horses were very tired but their master did not like to leave them behind to the mercy of these fellows besides the road was strange & unfrequented so that to proceed we agreed would be hazardous, & to stay we knew would be disagreeable if ever practicable — we enquir'd if there was room for the horses they told us no — for us — no they said no travellers ever remain'd in that Place & there was no accomodation, we then Sought for a Barn wherein to place the horses supposing no other but that we ourselves must sleep in the chaise but in this despair I again Call'd loudly to the host, who had before denied us admittance from a little window I begg'd him to come & hear what we had to say I told him we were resolv'd to stay there that night as the servant had found a place for the Beasts & I begg'd him in the civillest manner possible (in almost unintelligible Italian) to let us enter his Kitchen & sit down in one Corner till the morning that we would pay him handsomly for it on the morrow, he assur'd us he had no accomodation fit for us, but if we would enter his hut & do the best we could — we were Padrone [masters] viz — welcome this was great Joy to us who had concluded that we must stay in the open air all night we enter'd the house & found the Kitchen full of the most filthy being's possible all making such a Noise, Quarreling Gaming &c these were some of the poorest People that were employ'd in this Page 55 part of the marshes who had no habitation of their own [204]  & collected themselves for shelter here — the host told us perhaps we should like better to be by ourselves up stairs this we willingly agreed to — he offer'd me his Bed as being in a room by itself, but as I found it was in a Corner of a little Place where they kept their Stores & where was a Combination of the vilest [?Scents] that ever offended human nostrils & apprehending that this would soon stifle me I thank'd him & prefer'd the next room which he objected to as having no door — but no matter it was rather sweeter & had 2 beds so that we might all be together & thus the guard be stronger —

having prov'd fortunate thus far We were embolden'd to descend once more into the Kitchen to see if we could find anything to make a Supper of — by that means to save our own provision for some future disaster; Dame Fortune presented herself to us in the form of some Ducks & Eals so we made a bargain with our hosts brother who we found a very Civil fellow full of Apologies that he could not treat us in a more worthy manner — with him I agreed to give 4 Pauls a head & desir'd him to make us up two or 3 little hot Dishes as clean as he could, of what he had — after some persuasion we got some warm water & made some hot Rum & water to warm us, & in some degree {to} stupify our senses that we might be the better match against the Liliputian though numerous Enemies we suspected would attack us in the Night season — in about an hour and a half great preparation was made to get things a little in order for supper we had frequent renovations of fire — being about 2 handfulls of wood ashes in a Pot lid — however we at last got a decent Supper Consisting of Lintel [lentil] soup, stew'd Pidgeons, stew'd Eals & part of a duckling stew'd with onions &c but really very good & with tolerable decency, Our good Landlord's Brother brought us an unexpected desert of dried Figs & Apples — Express'd his wish to satisfie us in the best way he could sat down & gossop'd with us during our repast & supplied us with more hot water to mix with our Rum — & wish'd us good night with all this we were perfectly well satisfied but not so Page 55v with what happen'd afterward our chamber had neither fireplace Casement or Door, so we agreed to keep watch by Turns but after a short time all growing sleepy we agreed that we were among honest people & therefore might all venture to sleep at once but thought it most advisable to lay down with our Cloaths on to defend us the more against our second rate Enemies, but all in vain nor Cloaths, nor Rum & water avail'd us anything, the stings of Consciens [conscience] were too strong to permit us much Rest, we ardently wish'd for daylight to discover what kind our Enemies were but when that appear'd they fled or rather hopp'd away after a most excellent repast on our poor Bodies Legs & arms leaving behind them visible marks of their late Usurpation we gladly rose & after drinking some chocolate we joyfully turn'd our Backs on this Hovel which was rather ungrateful considering the timely Asylum it has prov'd to us in time of very need but if it was so bad to us for one night what must it be for these poor wretches to endure continually, how many of them we had depriv'd of Bedding by occupying the 2 Beds ourselves I know not, but the Kitchen & the stairs seem'd thickly Inhabited, I frequently heard them snoring at no great distance from the doorway of our Room —


Friday — we continued our Route through the Marshes till we came to the next Posthouse which was little better than the last here we wander'd about, & saw on the Roadside the remains of an ancient Tomb of agreable dimensions — about 5 O Clock we got to the End of the road which brought us close down to the sea side leaving the town of Terricina [Terracina] [205]  to our left, situated on a high Rock very Picturesque we prefer'd the Inn which was near the Sea, as being by much the best & pleasantest — Mr Monclergon the Host ask'd a Sequin a Head for a good supper & Beds but we agreed to be treated as negociants & were wonderfully well serv'd for a Crown a head — we walk'd up into the Town which we found a very dirty miserable place Consisting of one long Street over the Rocks, small houses Page 56 & a Cathedral [206]  but it was too dark for us to judge of its Contents — we got a Cup of good Coffee & soon return'd to our Inn where we found a good wood fire the Cloth laid & every thing as clean & comfortable as heart could wish — but as it wanted near an hour to supper we thought we could not better employ the time than in Cleansing ourselves from the last night's filth, this being agreed to we return'd to our own chambers for that purpose & having accomplished our wish, we joyfully set down to an Excellent supper & were attended by the Master himself & did not a little enjoy the pleasing expectation of a Comfortable night's rest — in the which we were by no means disappointed —

we rose very late the next morning which was very fine we had a beautiful view of the Sea Vesuvius in the distance, & almost facing was the Island Mount of Circe — on the other side of the house are the remains of some ancient Building with mosaic floors — we thought they might have been baths by their vicinity to the Sea, the old appian Pavement {made by Appius Claudius Censor — year of Rome 441} [207]  runs behind them, & near at hand on the Top of a very high mountain are the ruins of a Palace built by Theodoric a Gothic King that besieg'd Rome, & govern'd with much Justice; [208]  — we were very Curious to see these & other ruins on this Eminence but how to mount was with us a great difficulty so great that F[laxman] would not venture but chose rather to revisit Cathedral & Town — we took fresh Courage deliver'd little Dog to the arms of Simon who was to preceed & find out some pathway through the Briers & Brambles, we halted many times among some loose Stones & almost repented of our foolish undertaking — but no matter we had got about half way, & we[re] loth to give over the enterprize so with very great difficulty we got to the Top {but} very much Fatigue'd, we rested our weary limbs, amus'd ourselves with conjectures about the ruins, were much delighted with the Views around Page 56v & heartily wish'd ourselves safe at the Bottom —

half way down we found the mouth of a Cave, the which & whilst I rested, my Companion having struck a light enter'd & remain'd Groping about some time but finding nothing very Curious he return'd back to day light & we made the best of our way to the Bottom — we soon found Fl. & return'd to the Inn being about 12 O Clock — we order'd the Carriage to be got ready by three & having throwed myself on my Bed I soon fell into a profound Sleep having deliver'd myself over to the care of F[laxman] who took great Care I should not be disturb'd — it was near 3 O Clock when I wak'd much refresh'd but my poor Limbs seem'd almost dislocated — for the rest of the Day however I was very glad I had been up the Rock as it gave me some idea of & at the same time Encouragement to undertake that arduous task, of mounting to the Mouth of that Phenomena of Nature Vesuvius [word circled] we took a Cold snap [i.e., snack] & waited very Impatiently for the chaise, which was not at the door till near 5 O Clock this put poor M[ajor] G[ardner] into a soldierlike passion he threaten'd the Host with his Fists but luckily could not speak French as for poor Simon he got a lash of the whip which rather offended him for a few minutes but he was a German & Spaniel like follow'd his Master notwithstanding, the poor host desir'd to know of me what he had done that the Gentleman {had} threaten'd him so, I endeavour'd to persuade him that the double Fist was not meant to him & that he had made that mistake by not understanding English manners, but as dusk was coming on we bid adieu to Terricena [209]  & made the best of our way towards the next Town passing through an arch'd gateway the Barrier to the Page 57 Popes Dominions —

[Fondi - Mola di Gaeta - Minturnae - River Garigliano]

we soon met with Peasants of a Neapolitan speech sitting on the road side & after 12 miles pleasant riding singing all the way {having pursued the new road} we arriv'd at Fondi — the first Town in the King of Naples's Dominions we left the Sea much to our right — the Town itself is very inconsiderable & very dirty but lays in a Pleasant valley, [210]  we had a very poor Supper & I pass'd a disagreeable Night & the next morning being Sunday we took Chocolate & departed — near this Place is a Cave where Sejanus conceal'd Tiberius — but we did not turn aside to see it — we had a pleasant & unequal ride all this day & din'd in the carriage as was often the Case having well provided ourselves in the article of Provision &c before we quitted Rome — we got to Mola di Gaeta [now Formia] about 3 O Clock [211]  — we pass'd by the Tomb of Cicero — & saw the remains of his villa on our Return — it was near here that that great Orator was murder'd in his litter — making his Escape to Greece — the Town runs by the sea side & our Inn was situated very pleasantly on the Quay, here our Baggage was examin'd, here we scolded the waiter for making us wait so long for the Keys of the chamber — here poor Flaxman was taken sick & drank a Quart of sea water & lay down till Tea time — we left him to take a Comfortable Nap & we took a pleasant walk along the road which run[s] close by the sea shore — having that grand object of Nature on our right & Vineyards & Olive Groves on our left — on our return through the Town I saw the women with shoes made without toes  [212]  — we found Flax[man] much better for his Nap & still more so after a Comfortable dish of Tea, [213]  we wrote & read till the supper was serv'd up — which was but so so — & the next morning the Landlord impos'd on Flax[man] to pay 2 Pauls for Candles to eat our supper by — the People of the Town had the conscience to ask the servant a Paul & a half, or 10 Pence for a little milk so we substituted the Yolke of a new laid egg — beat up with a little [...] & warm water — & very good milk it made —

Page 57v the Beds here were tolerably Clean & good — our Beds in general were straw Matrasses on 3 cross boards 2 Coarse sheets & an old rug sometimes a little hard bit of a Pillow — we did not visit the Castle which they say Contains the Skeleton of the famous Bourbon Constable of France who was kill'd, scaling the walls of Rome {nor did we visit the Cathedral} — when our Companion (who had been looking about him) return'd — we set off each Indulging their own particular humour, It was mine to sing violently, F[laxman] to be silent & our Friend to reflect on what he had seen but this was all soon disturb'd by our arrival at some unknown Ruins when we unanimously dismounted to make all proper Examinations whereon to found our Conjectures, they were situated in a Field to the right, one was part of an amphitheatre another of a Theatre &c some old Capitals of Marble Columns, & among the furrows were pieces of different Color'd Marbles or Pastes that had form'd the mosaic of the Pavement — as these remains lye near the Liris now call'd the River Carigliano [Garigliano] — it is thought to have been the ancient Minturrae [Minturnae] & in these morasses they say Caius [Gaius] Marius was taken, the men here have a few old Coins which they want to change for modern ones but being rather extravagant in their expectation they were disappointed & so carefully wrapt them up again for the hoping to have better success with the next English Blockheads who might pass that way —

We pass'd the Garigliana in a flying boat & for the first time took Neapolitan money — on the other side we found a continuation of the same pleasant Road — we stopt & took a Comfortable repast — the weather was fine the views on each side beautiful — excellent appetites & very good Fare to satisfy them — we fill'd our bottle with water from the brook which run along the road side the which we improv'd with some Rum & thus we feasted — Page 58 Interrupt'd by no one but a farmer with his Cart & Dogs who all Quietly pass'd by except one of the dogs who being allur'd by the neighbouring Scents Stopt to gaze awhile at us, secretly perhaps imploring Fortune to be kind towards him — we Indulg'd him in some Odd bits & he endeavor'd to pursue his way 2 or 3 different times and as often was overcome by Temptation to return & like the world in general his infidelity got rewarded — but when we had put by our Provision which by this time began to run Short, he return'd to his Duty & Master as fast as his Legs could Carry him, while we follow'd Slowly being inchanted with the Views of the Country we were passing through & having sufficient time to arrive at our design'd dwelling Place — before dark — Instead of turning up the road to our left which led to the town of St Agata we Stopt at a good looking Inn at the Corner as it seem'd to promise us tolerable Fare the Old Landlord & his Dame were Sitting smoking their Pipes & gossoping a little with their {ragged} neighbours, on the Bench before the Door; nor was it with any Extraordinary Alacrity that they quitted this Post to hail us, however we were convey'd up Stairs by the waiter into a large uncouth room with a large round Table in the middle of it & the walls surrounded by a prodigious Number of fine {Chairs} Green & Gold, feeling ourselves Chilly we made a great outcry for a fire & were sorry to observe that there was no signs of a chimney where we might be accommodated with this necessary Indulgence, but the man soon silenc'd our Complaints by opening a pair of large folding doors (which I thought contain'd a Bed) & raking a Minute among some embers we found it was a Fire Place — wood was brought a good fire made in a Minute we enter'd all into the Cupboard having the opening of the chimny immediately over our heads & in a little time we found ourselves sufficiently Smok'd & somewhat warmer than we were at first, we soon got used to this & every other inconvenience & call'd aloud for boiling water — & made a comfortable Cup of Tea —

Page 58v Our Supper consist'd of Macaroni Soup roasted Capretta [Capretto] or Kid, Eggs Sausages & Sallad — it was rather scantily serv'd till we made a Complaint after which we got plenty aye more than we knew what to do with which a Cunning dog & cat observing watch'd our removal up the Chimney & made a Seizure of the remains, but as there is no friendship among the wicked so these two unfaithful servants soon fell out which discovered to us the Theft we restored the shattered remains of the Goats leg into the Dish & turned the dishonest wretches out of Doors — while our supper was cooking: which I had been down into the Kitchen to give my unintelligible orders about I prevailed or [on] F[laxman] to draw the handle of the Knife & fork for me as they seemed to me to be Curiously Ugly — we washed down the smoke with our old friend Punch & went to Rest — Our Companion was unfortunately much disturbed during this Night — owing to some Travellers who lay in his Room & who were to set off before day, the waiter wishing to call this or these men mistook their Bed & whimpered the M[ajor] in the Ear desiring him to rise, for the which the poor fellow got a fine Box of the Ear with which he hastily departed not too well satisfied with his Blunder & misfortune & not knowing which to curse most his own Ill fortune or the M[ajor']s dexterity — we set off about 8 O Clock towards Capua but the wind rising very high about Eleven O Clock & being very Cold we look'd out Sharp where we might alight & warm ourselves & stay till the hurricane was somewhat past, the Road in this part was rather scanty of Houses but at length fortune prov'd kind & presented us with a Hovel

we went towards the Kitchen or I may say Parlor for it serv'd for both & plac'd ourselves by a good brisk Fire — this Place was fill'd with Noisy Hedgers & Ditchers Page 59 some of whom as usual were playing at cards other [...] & others disputing warmly in what manner it was best to use their Cartello's [cartèllos, cards] against their adversaries — however our care was to look up at the Ceiling to see what Chance suspended therefrom that was fit for us Christians to satisfy our hunger with, I soon Espied some promising sausages & fat Bacon & in a little corner part of a Side of Pork that look'd sufficiently tempting — I soon made an outcry for a Knife & cut some Pork Steaks & disentangled a few links of sausages which the Major cook'd — we had our own good Bread & wine — & made a wonderful good dinner Occupying the whole fire to our 3 selves & F[laxman] got a dip in the Great Pot where he found some stew'd cabbage for a Plate of which he made friends with the Landlord, in whose Countenance he assur'd himself he saw goodness & honesty strongly imprinted but — when we agreed to depart & he found this honest man had the conscience to ask a Sequin or 10 Shillings for that we had eat saying we had eaten all the provision that was for his own Family — he soon lower'd his Price to 15 Pauls & Flaxman presented him with a Crown being 10 Pauls, less than the half of [what] he had ask'd about 46 English — we had eaten to the worth of, one shilling — perhaps


we set off again Horses & selves much refresh'd & the wind greatly abated, & got to Capua about 5 in the Evening at the Entrance of this Town we Cross'd the Volturno by a Bridge this modern Capua is a little neat Town well guarded with Soldiers & the walls here & there ornamented with Pieces of Altars & basreliefs & other ancient remnants of the famous Capua where Hanibal was Conquer'd by its Luxuries & which lies about a Mile distant of which there now remains only Part of the grand Theatre & a gate &c — Our passport Page 59v was sent to the Governor & the man who brought it back to the Inn would not depart without his reward which enrag'd the Major's meek spirit that he push'd the man out of the room & threw the passport after him the other knowing his Business took it up & march'd off but as we knew they were necessary Evils towards our Peaceable departure from that Place we thought best to apply to the Governor for them again accordingly Flax[man] was chosen for this undertaking as the best able to make himself understood in the French Language (which the Governor spoke) he applied to an Officer & was demanded befor[e] the Governor to whom the transaction was related at large in broken French, however our party was in the wrong for having struck a King's officer & he was advis'd to give the man a trifle which was Customary although not to be demanded, & thus with a Piece of advice not to do so in future Flax[man] was dismiss'd & the Papers restor'd 2 Carlini's was given to the offended, a word of advice to the Innocent, & the Guilty {as is too often the case} escap'd the Offender & I walked Quietly about the town waiting the Issue of the Event we were soon Join'd by Flax[man] saw the Cathedral & whatever else was worth notice in the Town & return'd to the Inn — This Cathedral is a Pretty building & the Columns which are in it were brought from the ancient Town — we descended into a little Chaple (under the high Altar) which is dedicated to our saviour his Image which is lying down {by Bernini} enclos'd in a little mausoleum said to be made after the model of that in which he was enter'd [interred] in, I believe it was Octagon with apertures on the Sides the outside was Mosaic — the Square belonging to this Cathedral was surrounded by Columns brot [brought] from the ancient Town & had seven or 8 {old} sarcophagi — the bas reliefs on them were bad, in the walls of the town house were some Colossal heads, viz Diana Mercury &c Page 60 brought from the ancient City, having serv'd as Key stones to Entrances of the Amphitheatre, somewhat to the left of our window was a church which is admir'd for its Proportions & simple stile of Architecture, it stands on the foundation of an Ancient Temple as they say, throughout the Town were to be seen - Old Inscriptions stuck in the walls, altars Pieces of Colums for Posts, broken Capitals &c the humble remains of the ancient splendor of that City — & O how fallen

After having recogniz'd the Town we drank Coffee & retir'd to our Inn, the Evening being cold we begg'd to have a wood fire in preference to the abominable Focone, [214]  for this we were to pay a Paul Extra as wood was dear in that Part — we pd 7 Pauls a head for our Supper — the chimny was in a corner of the room close to the door & smok'd most comfortably so that while roasted on one side, we froze on the other from the door for it had no fastening & we were well smok'd all round — we were serv'd with an Indifferent Supper by a great overgrown greasy Cameriare [cameriere] (in English waiter) — in the Morning we visit'd 2 or 3 churches took chocolate & made off, after passing about a mile along a fine Road lin'd with vineyards we turn'd to our left to view the remains of the ancient Capua — distant about half a Mile from the high Road — we search'd diligently but all we found was the remains of the amphitheater of a Oval form being 250 ft by 150 — within the walls [215]  — it has 4 Principal Entrances & some of the Key Stones remain in their Places — also {one of} the Gates of the City remains in Ruin the Situation must have been delightful tis even now in these degenerate days very delightful —

on our Return we mistook the turning & got into a dirty narrow, uneaven, unfrendly Lane we here got softly laid in the dirt & sprain'd a few members, but no great harm was done, Fl[axman] who had wisely got out a few moments before to walk'd [walk] was surrounded with horrors when he saw the chaise at some little distance turn'd side upward & ran with all his might to help us out expecting no doubt but that I was half dead if not quite but the fall was very Easy, & I was [...] uppermost —

Page 60v we hobbled over the hedge to the field which was close at hand, sat down on a bank & refresh'd our shatter'd spirits with some smoky Rum — which we had the day before despis'd, but t'was no longer bad; we had all this time totally forgot {that} the little Dog was of the Party, who quietly presented herself to our (sic) as soon as she saw [us] a little compos'd, all muddy & miserable, which caus'd us some little laughter, what had become of her or how she had far'd I am at a loss to know —

we reseated ourselves & were very thankful it was no worse, we proceeded with great caution till we got again into the high Roads about 6 miles further we [got to] a little Town call'd Aversa [216] — here we alight'd & got into the Kitchen of some Osterea, or Alehouse & made overtures for some black broth [that] was boiling & dress'd ourselves some Pork Steaks we eat & drank heartily & were merry over our {late} disaster —

we then proceeded Towards Naples along a fine broad even Road, shaded with large Trees on each side till we came to the fauxborg [faubourg] St Antonio [217] 


— It was about 5 O Clock when we Enter'd the City — we enquir'd for the Inn we had been Recommended to being Madam [?Bonton] & were directed wrong, we found ourselves in a Large house seemingly uninhabited — but when the man made his appearance & told us the usual terms of the house we soon found our Error & having ask'd if that was Bontons we were answer'd in the negative, for that was a private Locanda [hotel], fitt only for Lords & Dukes — we found the Inn we wanted at a little distance, & were accosted by a little brown good humor'd french woman who told us she had but room for one of us & as we did not like to separate — she recommended us to her sister's but first propos'd a second small room for the M[ajor] for 2 or 3 days after which she should have a proper accommodation for him some Company being to leave her house after that time, this was agreed too & the payment was adjusted at 6 Carlini's a Day each one being worth 2 English — for this we had Bed Dinner & Supper all very good — poor F[laxman]— had been very poorly all this Day & very much wish'd Page 61 to have some Tea and go to Rest — which was accordingly done the next day he found himself better — being the festa of St Antonio (see Rome) there were some fine firework's near at hand — in the Evening — which I went to see but finding myself Suddenly taken Ill I return'd & was Indeed violently sick all the Evening — They gave me plenty of warm water till I had lost all strength & then put me to Bed — I remain'd poorly for a few days — & Flax[man] began again to find himself Ill — which at lenght [length] terminated in a six weeks ague & fever the which I fortunately escap'd — In the Intermediate days we look'd about us but were by no means delighted either with the City or People — but the Bay is to be Sure the most delightful that can possibly be conceiv'd It is very large, {[in left margin] a hundred miles in Circumference} & a fine full sea — with Shipping It is surrounded with Mountainous ground, with houses up to their summits on the left of the Bay is Vesuve continually smoking or burning with its companions, & Portici — where the Kings Palace is — under which Town lies Herculaneum, — a few miles further Pompeia — & this leads to Paestum — on the right side of the Bay is the Grotto of Pausolippo [Posillipo] with Virgil's Tomb on the Top — & thro' this Grotto you pass to Solfaterra, Grotto del Cane, Pozzuoli — here you cross the Gulph & see the Ruins of Baia, Cuma, the Phlegrean [Phlegraean] plains the Elysium Fields &c in the sea rises the Island of Caprea famous for the retreat of Tiberius, this side is bounded by cape Misere what I saw of these Places I shall speak of by & by — [218] 

the Streets of Naples are very hilly, [219]  pav'd with flat large Stones what is very bad for the poor horses — , the City seems dirty (to be sure it was winter time) and the People most notoriously Idle — they say there are 40 thousand Lazeroni here — these are People who actually do nothing — except beg Steal, lye altogether in holes under the Mountains & are in a word almost as bad to Naples, as the Pontine marshes are to Rome — the {Chiaja [Chiaia]} Quay which runs a great way round is the Bay is very airy & pleasant much Company resort here in Carriages every Evening & there is a large gravel walk Shaded with Trees & vines for the Quality to exercise their Legs in whenever they are so Inclin'd — having the Sea & all the above mention'd Interesting Objects to see & Page 61v reflect on as they walk, & yet few there are who can persuade themselves to be so vulgar as to shew the world that they have feet like common folk

of course the carriages in this Lazy City are numerous they ch[i]efly consist in open chaises, or chariots whimsically Painted — we often saw old Abbe's & Old Ladies who seem'd tumbling into their Graves (or supported only by the arms of Death for a few short hours,) — with Cupids darting their Bows & little Loves flying about or some famous Love story painted in the Pannels Some few indeed, were done with taste after some of the Paintings found in Herculaneum &c the horses in general are very small — & very beautiful — white Bay pye ball'd &c with long tails & manes — Indeed I never saw Prettier little creatures in my Life [220]  This Chiaja which is intirely open to the sea has on the other side houses & shops & Some Palaces & Lacanda's [locandas] or large Lodging houses for the forestiers [foreigners, visitors] pleasantly situated to be sure on all accounts but for which they must Pay a great Price — the women sit out at their doors spinning & Knitting with their heads dress'd exactly like those represented on the Etruscan vases & indeed their faces & figures much resemble them also — they seem to swarm with children which for the most part run about naked —

I saw one day a young woman who had come from some of the neighbouring villages among the Mountains who was a perfect beauty in the Etruscan style & her hair — & dress was very Picturesque & fine —

[Naples churches]

The churches here gave me no great Satisfaction indeed after Rome they ought not to be look'd at, the works of art such as Painting & Sculpture & the architecture are very Indifferent, but the Reliques which some of them are said (& believ'd by them) to contain render them very famous — In St Luigi del Palazzo Page 62 is rich in fine Marble's bad Paintings &c & contains some of the Virgins Milk which is coagulated in little Vials & which liquefies itself on her holidays —

The Church of the Incoronata was originally painted by Giotto some few of his works remain in the vaults, also the Portrait & coronation of Queen Jeanne by him —

St Trinita, at the altar is a Tabernacle made of Precious stones ornamented with silver statues it is valued at 250 thousand Livres In the Sacristy are C[h]alices of Gold & Rock Crystal {100400 Pds}] set with Diamonds — but these we did not see — in the Piazza before this church is a remarkable ugly Obelisk —

St Giovanni Maggiore, was formerly a Temple built by Hadrien to his favorite Antinous — some ancient Columns only remain —

— St Maria Maggiore is on the Foundations of a Temple to Diana, they tell the Story of the Devil appearing there in the form of a Pig, & have plac'd a Pig of Bronze on the Cupulo, in the little Place before this Ch[urch] is a holy Stone which the Pious embrace to gain Indulgences —

St Paolo — on the remains of an ancient Temple to Apollo or rather to Castor & Pollux, rais'd by Julius Tarsus freed man of Tiberius, some few years ago part of the antique Entablature was visible — with the Figure of Appollo leaning against a Trypod a figure representing the Earth ditto of a River, a mercury, &c in two niches on the Front, are two mutilated Figures of Pollux & Castor, which are barbarously spat on & ill treated by the pius — four of the ancient Columns remain also —

the Inside of the Ch[urch] is large & richly ornamented with Painting & gilt stucco, the Tabernacle of the altar is of Bronze gilt orneé with Columns of Jasper & inlaid with precious Stones — we often visited this Church saw it finely lighted up & heard very good Music — in the Cloister are many ancient Columns of the old Edifice & is built on the spot where stood the ancient Theatre in which Nero appear'd in public to sing his compositions for the first time — it was also by this theatre that Seneca pass'd every day, to go to hear the Lecons [lessons] of Metronactus, he complain'd sadly at seeing so many people at the Theatre & so few in the house of Philosophy here is also a little chapel — in the spot where St Peter stop'd & made the St[atue]s of Castor & Pollux fall down — In St Lorenza is the Tomb of J[ean] Bapt[iste] de la Portu [Porte], Catharine of Austriche daughter of Albert

Page 62v St Fillippo [Filippo] Neri is reckon'd the richest ch[urch] in Naples, the Sacristy abounds in treasure & unheard of Reliques —

The Cathedral is dedicated to St Januarius [221]  the Protector of that City tis an old Gothic built on the wrecks of a Temple to Apollo — at the great door are two of the ancient Columns of Porphyre on 2 Lions 110 Granite Columns are reckon'd to be in this ch[urch] here was an antique vase of basalte the attributes of Bacchus are round it thought to be about the time of Constantine.

In a Subterrane chapel — lye the remains of St Januarius, the vault is orneè with arabesques of a pretty taste &c —

in one of the chapels is the Tomb of Dr Berna[r]dino Carracciolo [Caracciolo] archbishop of Naples, the Portrait of him, a Skeleton — cov[er]'d with a winding sheet shews his horn glass — several Popes are buried here [222]  In the Treasury are many valuables & among them the Skull of the titulary St & some of his Blood coagulated in a Phial which on his Feast days become liquid on the approach of the Skull & the Prayers of the faithful, these drops of Blood was collected by a Lady during the time of his Martyrdom — Monsieur de L'Allond [223]  says he saw this Ceremony perform'd it took about 8 or ten minutes to liquify the People begin to be in desperation if the length of time exceeds the common & they fail not to Impute it to the presence of some heretick in 1730, the Miracle was slow to progress they attributed it to the Presence of the English Consul, wherefore some of the officiates begg'd of him to leave that spot & take a view of some other part of the church wh[ich] he immediately agreed to, as it might have prov'd dangerous to him to have refus'd — as soon as he was distanced the miracle was perform'd — On certain days they make Great Professions & Expose these Reliques with all Immaginable Pomp — Music &c —

Il Carmine [Santa Maria del Carmine] stands at one side of the market Place — in this ch[urch] is a Portrait of the Virgin by St Luke — also a wonderful Crucifix plac'd in the middle — wh[ich] according to tradition lower'd it[s] head to avoid a Canon ball which pass'd through the church & only took off the Cr[own] of Thorns, they at times shew this ball, I saw it not, this happen'd in the time that Naples was besieg'd by Alphonsus st1 [first] commanded by Don Pietro his Brother he was soon after kill'd by a Cannon ball in the ch[urch] of the Madonna — who reven[g]'d the affront offer'd to her son —

Page 63 This Piazza is very large & much frequent'd by the Populace in the middle is a large fountain of Neptune, tis open to the sea & Culprits are executed here — which happens but seldom — two poor fellows suffer'd during our Stay —, the most famous Execution perform'd here was that of Conradin the lawful succcessor of Conrad — but he was excommunicated by the Pope for meddl[in]g Improperly with church affairs, he was seiz'd & put to death by Charles of Anjou — Br[other] to St Louis — he was beheaded in 1268 — they have built a little chapel on the spot where it happen'd — In the ch[urch] of St Antony in the faubourgh is a picture in oil by Antonio de Fiore 1362 — & of course before the time of Jean of Bruges, whom Vasari says was the 1st Inventor — The Brotherhood of this ch[urch] have the Privilege of blessing horses & particularly Pigs the bless'd Pig generally becomes very fat & then the farmer never fails to send it [. . .] them & they mark another In the country places Pigs are held in great Esteem & mix round the fire side with the children &c —

We undertook one day to walk up to the castle of St Elmo which is situate on the Top of a mountain which is cut into zigzag Streets & thickly inhabited almost to the Top — on which stands the Castle the walk tired us much but we met with an old Soldier who shew'd us the Castle & we had a fine Extensive [view] of the Country we had pretty well [...] the Surrounding beauties of Naples so as to find out their Situations from this height with ease & we diverted ourselves a long time in this high spot — but was very much fatigued by the time I had descend'd on Level Ground again — we promis'd ourselves another regale of the same kind before we quitted Naples from a height much Superior — the which was never put in practice, — we visited the Royal palace on Capo di Monte another very high Place {to see a fine agate vase work'd in basrelief} to see a fine Collection of Pictures Collection of medals & other curiosities — Many of these things were very fine & deserv'd a second visit — but F[laxman's] fever prevented it — under these Mountains run a great extent of Catacombs — In the new Library which is not yet finish'd we saw some ancient statues & the famous [?Hercurelse] [Hercules] Farnese [224]  but with respect to the fine arts the King himself is a very Mummius [225]  & I verily believe if the Taureau farnese [226]  could run & his game run short he would not fail to hunt even that

Page 63v The Palaces contain nothing remarkable except that of the Duke Caraffa [Carafa] Noia — where are some Etruscan vases & a large Coll[ection] of medals — In the Courtyard of the Palace Caraffa in Strada di Nido are some remnants — one is the head of a Bronze horse, this horse was formerly the symbol of the City & stood before the Cathedral & the People believ'd that by leading their horses round it would be cured of any maladys this superstition, cost dear to the Poor horse for in consequence of it, {it} was melted down in (1322) & made a large Bell of — the head only being left as a specimen of the style of art which seems fine — there is also a pretty St[atue] of a Vestal — a St[atue] of Ferdinand 2d by Donatello, in the Palace are some few basreliefs & busts of Emperors — Cicero Mutius Scevola [Mucius Scaevola] & these are the chief things worthy notice in the City — at Present It produces but few clever genius's — Except Mdlle [Mademoiselle] d'Ardinghelli who has translated the works of Mr Hales into Italian she is learned in the mathematics — & has compos'd works of her own [227]  — Fre [Frère] Negri a Barnabite — the same I believe who undertook to separate the leaves of the manuscripts found in Herculaneum Madeleina Morelli a wonderful Improvisatrice — & young Lad[y] of eleven years of age Gasparo Molle [Gaspare Mollo] — who is Eminent in this way also but we did not hear or see any of these wonderfulls The Cleaver [clever] Poets Painters &c are all dead & seem to have left no successors in their own country —

[The Neopolitans]

This City was is perhaps most famous in history, for its strong Jealousies & the atrocious vengeances on account thereof — but these at present are much abated, nevertheless the wives' of the tradespeople never walk out alone & even now in some Parts of the City the husbands accompany their wives to hear Mass — but among the Quality the Ladies may appear abroad in their Carriages with any friend Indifferently & are not confin'd to one particular Cicesbeo, as at Rome —

In general, only one Daughter of a Family is reserv'd for a Husband, the others all being put into a Convent at 3 years old & when they are grown up they have only the choice of what monastery they will fix in — unless as is seldom the case a gentleman of Fortune receives them without a Portion — in the Convent of St Claire there are 200 of these unhappy Girls & in all the other convents in Proportion — Oh England how enviable is thy free Land — Britons be firm & protect us poor females for which ye were born —

Page 64 Politeness encreases in its Extravagance as one advances in Italy & in Naples it seems to be at its last Period Every stranger is call'd your Eccellenza by the low People & they say a Priest would take off even to his Breeches to do homage to any particular Person to whom they would shew — esteem — the oldest & ugliest country woman is call'd Bella Donna, & anything tolerably well'd work'd is — stravagantemente lavorata [extravagantly wrought]— thus even this is treated in the last superlative — they all Pull off their hats to strangers, as they pass in the streets —

They never say no — but instead they pass the back of their finger of the right hand swiftly under their chin & sometimes this is done with a pleasing grace — & gives at all time a favorable opportunity of shewing a fine hand — or exposing a Diamant Ring — this is also practis'd at Rome —

The devotion of the People is very Exterior for they will murder with their Rosary in their hand — yet on all feast days the churches are decorated with Tapestry & in every Nich & corner of the street is an altar dress'd out to the Virgin — at christmas they have Presepeo's [precepios] or Mangers, contriv'd on the outside of the houses by architects &c — & the ostensoir [ostensorio, monstrance] to Exhibit the Host is always of the greatest magnificence — they have [?Processions] holy in great abundance — holy masquerades on the eve of Whitsuntide — here as throughout Italy nothing is to be done without the Mancia — but above all things the music of Italy is reckon'd to triumph most at Naples —

I went to an opera at St Carlo's where I heard some very fine music — Metastasio [228]  seems to be the reigning favorite among the Dramatic writers & his Pieces are set & reset by different composers Paciselli

Women are allow'd on the theatre's here which makes it more agreeable than at Rome — in the time of Lent they perform sacred Opera's — I saw Jael & Sisera — the King lends his fine horses to make these sacred Pieces more brilliant & there is always vast decorations & Pomp — &c — The Theatre is reckon'd the largest in Europe & is Elegantly fitted up — the front of the Boxes is of looking Glass — & the lustre's are very large & reflect — but they are heavy & clumsy & have not a good effect to an English Eye — the house is too large to hear or see well [229]  — we saw some little opera's at the Theatre di Fondo & some abominable Burletta's [musical farces, burlesques] — the King & Queen visited this house often it seems to be the favorite it is small but convenient & they can go more in Page 64v Private to it, at The Fiorentino they have a Company of Florentines & generally perform Goldoni's Comedies & mod[er]n Burletta's — I saw one or 2 that Pleas'd — the same kind of Performance is at the Theatre Nuovo —

The last Eight days before Lent they have their Carnival which chiefly consists in riding up & down the Principal St. call'd (Strada Toledo) in masks — with the horses decorated with silver tissues & bells — & the carriages themselves sometimes finely adorn'd in the same foolish manner the most Importunate of the masks generally carry shields to ward off the Blows of their Antagonists Sugar Plumbs (which indeed hurt much)] — as the Carriages meet & pass they Skirmish &c & thus the pretty fools will divert themselves for the whole afternoon & at dusk they retire to drink Coffee, visit one another's houses in masquerade & at 12 O Cl[ock] when all sober people should go to rest they set off to St Carlo's, which is made a level room for the occasion & richly lighted up — &c — I went but once & then there was scarce anything but Domino's & Pierrots except a few Belles who were in full dress & wish'd to gain admiration by their fine Cloack's & dancing — the King & Queen mix with gentry in Mask's, & through [throw] their Sugar Plumbs like Common folk — with this difference that their Confits are much better — all together tis a foolish piece of Business, & would be thought nothing of in England, some years they have a Procession of the Grand Turk going to Mecca, which they say is a fine sight but I believe to the King this comes expensive —

On Shrove Tuesday this grand affair call'd the carnival Ends & on ash Wednesday Morning you find the People with long faces looking melancholy for their past sins, or for that they have spent all their money — & the time approaching that they must per force Confess — or be Excommunicated — In the Evening of Ash Wednesday I saw the People throwing ashes out of their windows in token of the Day —  [230] 

Page 65 Macaroni is the favorite food especially among the lower Class Policenello [i.e., Punch] having become King they denied him Macaroni as being a food too ordinary; then says he I shall give my Royalty in a moment it is about 3 french sols a pound, all kind of common living is so reasonable with good common wine &c, that a workman with his wife & 4 children can live decently upon 4 Ducats or 17 Livres fr[ench] per month for victuals — The climate is so warm that even in winter they have no fire except for forms sake in the great houses for the sake of Foriestiere in the Inns — the Children run about naked & some only in their little shirts — all winter — we found some cool Days — but a handful of charcoal in the Focone satisfied us — In a word Naples is surnam'd L'Ozioso [the idle] — & not without good reason —


— The Grotto of Pausilippe [Posillipo] is hollow'd through a mountain 450 toises long or as others say 362 — about 2316 English feet — it is the shortest Passage to Puozoli [Pozzuoli] — it is lighted by some slaunting openings — here & there but towards the middle it becomes dusk however to try it one time I read whilst I rode through & as soon as I lost the light from the one Entrance I caught it from the other by turning myself about — I think it took us 10 min[utes] a moderate Pace to go through it — when you enter upon a Pleasant Road with trees & distant mountains on the right & the Sea beyond some vineyards to the left the Road leads across the neck {Cape} of Land down to the sea & then turns of[f] close to the {& winds round the} shore toward the right to Puozzoli — leaving many lakes & other curiosities to the left —

such as the Lake Agnano a beautiful piece of water the hot Baths of St Germano which we went to, there are seats for People [who] visit them for their health, they seem very hot — in some part of walls we found Icicles of a salt matter, which I thought very curious, it shone & was like Grotto work, near at hand is the famous Grotto del Cane from the ground of which rises an Exhalation for about 6 Inches so Powerful that if you put a dog {half} a foot within the door he Immediately faints & would die if he was not taken out directly & thrown into the lake where he soon recovers himself they brought the poor dog by a string & he look'd pitifully at us — I begged he might be set at Liberty & took their words for the effect — I however saw the man light a handful of Ropes well Pitch'd Page 65v which he lighted & put near to the ground & although the flame was large & strong it was extinguish'd momentarily & this even at the door of the Grot — but without any kind of noise —


about half a mile distant to the left is Solfaterra [Solfatara] It is a little Plain on an Eminence & surrounded by hills except that side by which you Enter — the Ground is very warm & in some Places hot where are holes from whence Issue a Sulphureous Vapour & the mouth of the openings are of a fiery Yellow — there remains one very large opening — we laid down a piece of Silver which in a minute or two turn'd quite black — when we Jump'd on the Ground it sounded as though twas hollow underneath, many men at work here gathering sulphur sel ammoniac alum [231]  — It is thought to have been a Volcano — near is the Convent of Capuchins, the Pavement of the chapel is warm & humid owing to its nearness — in one of the side chaples they preserve {their} dead bodies after they have been buried a year they find them Intire in the Biere, they suppose them saints, & they Place them upright in their own dress of Capuchins & thus they expose them to the veneration of the Devotees — but this I did not go to see — after a pleasant ride {of 3 miles} round the mountains & close on the shore (where sometimes we stop't & let the wave sprinkle the horses) we found Puozzoli formerly a Stately little City, the cathedral was a Temple to Augustus in the market Place is a marble Pedestal about 5 & ½ wide with basreliefs on all the sides — of 14 figures representing the 14 cities of Asia Minor tributaries — rais'd {by them} in honor of Tiberius — thought to have held his statue —

The finest remains of this City is the Temple of Jupiter Serapis — see the Print — there are 42 little Chambers for the Priests to bathe & Purify themselves in, Part of the Portico remains some Columns standing & some thrown down — the pavement is white marble the ring to which they fasten'd the victims remains, the sanctum sanctorum of this Temple is suppos'd Still to lye under the Ground or side of the hill — but as the Place is private property & there are houses & vineyards it is likely to remain hid —

Page 66 many curious Vases & fine Statues where [were] found in this Port which was dug out in 1757 —

In the Port are the remains of an ancient mole of (sic) there are 13 Pillars & many Arches — standing it is generally call'd & thought to [be] the Bridge of Caligula which he had made across the Bay to Baiea [Baia] — of 3600 pas — but this was form'd by ships fix'd by Ancres & chaines, over which a high road was made with Earth & Pavements &c where he made [...] — Large remains of an Amphitheatre with its Portico the arena 250 ft long — near at hand was the Academia of Cicero, great part of which now lies under the Sea the fishermen {have} often found bits of marbles, Porphery, agate engrav'd stones medals Lamps &c — the Gulph is about 2 miles over [. . .] and it was formerly crowded round with Buildings & a favorite spot among the old Roman[s] about the time of Cicero &c — but now they are all destroy'd up by the neighbouring Volcanos or buried in the sea — we got into a large Boat to cross this gulph to Baiea, the rowers work'd forward & seeing in our Countenances that we were English soon began to cry hurra God save king George, pull away Boys hurra — these words had been taught them by our Conductor who often makes this little pleasant voyage with Travellers when we arriv'd at the opposite shore of the Gulph we were told that twas on that spot the Compagnions of Ulyssy [Ulysses] were buried, that here Hercules overcame the Giants that there Julius Caesar had a Country house in which Marcellus was poison'd by Livia, that her son Tiberius might reign after Augustus's death, (see Virgil, reading his fate before Octavia) the house of Julea [Julia] Mammea of great magnificence Seneca speaks of the houses of Cesar Pompey & of Marius being on this spot & he writes to his friend that he left that Place of Pleasure & debauchery (Baiea) the day after his arrival, it was here that the Triumverate of Ceser Pompey & Anthony was form'd — Adrien [Hadrian] died here after exercising all his cruelties, but of all these houses the memory of them only remains some old walls &c excepted — but to be on the spot with good references of these things in one hand is surely very Pleasant, at least I found it so, Page 66v I fancied I saw all these great Warriors, or at least their shadows haunting about their old habitations, I call'd to mind (as much as my treacherous memory would permit) all their past Deeds & took a lesson on human greatness, vanity, & war the same [. . .] may be said to such as the Ant said to the Turkey, the same who for a Breakfast Nations Kill [232] 

— here are also some considerable remains of 3 Temples to Venus Diana, & Mercury of that of Venus remains {great part of} the Rotunda & its vaulted Roof with part of the marble lining — also 3 small square Rooms call'd her Baths — on the walls are some basreliefs in Stucco, but most of these have been taken away, we enter'd the Mausoleum of Agripina, there are still some stucco releifs on the wall, as also some fresco Paintings seemingly in a good taste but much hurt by the smoke of the Torches with which they are shewn as the Place is in total Darkness — its form seem'd a half Cercle; we enter'd the hot baths of Nero but were soon glad to run out again as the steam is so great tis enough to suffocate one, nevertheless one of the men strip'd himself & went {into} one Inner room to fetch some of the water from the grotto he return'd in less than 2 minutes with a pailful of Boiling water himself in a profuse sweat & his face quite scarlet many of the travellers that visit these curiosities take Eggs in their Pocket to Cook them in this hot spring —

[Lake Averno]

the beautiful Lake of Avernus [Averno] is now much reduc'd we walk'd through part of the cavern of the Cumean Sybil that is in this Neighbourhood, the whole is of great Extent with Rooms for baths but as it was dark & in some of these rooms much water, we Contented ourselves with a little specimen & return'd to [?our] daylight — it was in the adjoining Forests that Page 67 EAneas [Aeneas] says he found the golden Palm Virg[il]'s {Georgics} Book [233]  we walk'd through the Elysian fields saw the mare morts {& the Lake Acheron here we} Call'd to Charon but in vain as he quitted that Post 17 Centuries ago, & his name is no longer remember'd where it was once so famous so passes the glory of the world —

near here was formerly the house of Servilius Vatias [Vatia] one of the richest senators of Rome he chose his residence in this retirement to avoid the trouble of a Court, (Tiberus) wherefo[re] Seneca says, "O vatia tu solus scis vivere" [O Vatia, solus scis vivere; O Vatia, you alone know how to live] he also describes this delightful situation Epist[le] 55

we descended into the Piscina Mirabile — it is thought to have been a reservoir for rain water constructed by the order of Agrippa, when he conducted a naval armee to Misena it is 200 ft long & 130 broad sustain'd by 48 great Pillars you descend by two staircases of 40 steps each — the Cento camerelle or Labyrinth are subterraen rooms which communicate with each other & in which tis easy to lose oneself, the Promontory of Misena is near here where Lucullus had a house, Tiberius also died here — the cape Misena & ruins of the City but we did not see this, Bauli where they say Hercules kept his oxen when the sea is tranquil the ancient Pavement may yet be seen, of the ancient city of Cuma [Cumæ] built 1000 years before Xt [Christ] there are still some vestiges {of walls Pavement a gateway &} but sufficient only to show that once there had been buildings on that spot —

the Cond[ui]t Acquaviva archbishop of Naples dug for antiques near this Place in 1606, they found a Temple almost entire of Corinthian order pav'd with marble [...] to have been built by Agrippa in honor of Augustus & they found a great number of statues which now ornament Page 67v the University of Naples about 3 miles North of Cuma is an ancient Tower with the word Patria for which reason they think it to have been the Tomb of Scipio Africanus as he retired to his Country house near here where he died after he had been accus'd by Cato of having [...] a Peace to Antiochus, when Instead of justifying himself he address'd the Romans thus Romans it was on this very day that I overcame Hanibal let us go and thank the gods however he died of Chagrin soon after being 187 Ante Xt [Christ] & was buried with the Poet Ennius his friend — his Epitaph was "Ingrata Patria nes ossa mea habebis" [234] 

from the Ports about here you have a view of Islands of Nisiday [Nisida] [235]  & Procida & Ischia — I have mention'd all the Curiosities on this side the Bay of Naples, except Virgils Tomb which is situate on the Top of the before mention'd Grotto of Pausolippo, what remains of this now is only a little square Tower about 12 ft high open at the sides & niches for 4 Urns I believe — but the famous Laurel Tree so much talk'd of is now no more —

On the other side the Bay {about 4 miles distant} is Portici where the Royal Castle is which contains the curiosities that have been dug out of Herculaneum Pompeia &c — , it is a pleasing ride round the chiaja & most of this road is pav'd with large flat Stones, Flaxman no doubt will make Proper Notes of the Antiquities contain'd in this Castle, the less therefore I trouble myself about it the better; what I Principally remember is that in the courtyard {which is divided by the high Road — } is two Equestrian [. . .] Statues of white marble that to the right is of M Nonnius [Nonius] Balbus fils, very simple & natural, facing this to the left is another to Balbus le Pere, this was not fou[n]d quite so perfect as the other: as the head & one hand was wanting — each with their Enscriptions — these were found in the Forum of Herculaneum, over which city Portici is built — all this subterrean City is fill'd up again except Page 68 the Theatre which we descended into & of which F[laxman] has some Prints — in the chambres of the Castle to the right are some Beautiful Tripods of beautiful forms & prettily Inlaid with Silver &c Lamps of Bronze, of various shapes — some {Bronze &} marble statues of great merit a room of very fine Busts, all necessary Utensils for the Toilette even to the Paint Box, they have fitted up a little Kitchen as it was found in Pompeia with the saucepans on the Fire meat on the gridiron &c. there are loaves bak'd and unbak'd except by the heat of the Laver [lava] — a large round Cake with this Writing Segilo e granii. & the name of the person to whom it belong'd E. Cicere —

wine in the Bottles, Eggs, fruits of all kinds &c

On the right hand of the Palace are the Picture's which were Painted on the walls of the houses in fresco — the floors of many of the rooms are of beautiful mosaic, as found in the 2 unfortunate cities of Herculaneum & Pompeia, — It seems that Herculaneum was a Greek Colony, the First Eruption of Vesuve over it was in 79 — the buildings were found 68 ft under the Earth in that Part where the Theater stands & 101 — towards the sea shore, the Laver fell by degrees so that the Inhabitants it is thought had for the most Part time to Escape, even with most of their Precious things that were Portable, as either very few [?Squelitors], or Portable effects have been found; the occasion of its discovery was that the Prince d'Elbeuf [Elboeuf] having built a house at Portici the which he wish'd to ornament with stucco's of a hard composition; he purchas'd some wrecks of different marbles to form it; of a country man who found a great quantity as he was digging a well in his own grounds — the Prince purchas'd this Piece of ground & continued digging on the same Spot & at last they came to a building — which Prov'd afterwards to be the Theatre, & thus was the first discovery made; they continued theire reserches & found a Temple many Statues &c — but as there was already a City built Ignorantly over this, {therefore} as the workmen Page 68v excavated they were oblig'd to leave great Spaces & in the End fill it almost all up again —

[Pompeii and Paestum]

On Wed 12 of Feby. {10 O'Clock} we set off for Paestum [236]  — we pass'd [. . .] the left hand Chiaja which pleasantly abounded with women spinning, dress'd like the Etruscans, children very numerous & ragged — {Shearing time} great Quantities of fine Oranges, to the left & to the right number[s] of fishing boats, Ships at Anchor &c we stopp'd at Portici a few minutes to see our old friends in the courtyards of the Royal Castle delighted anew with the horses mouth which seem'd alive pass'd through a little village call'd Torre della Greca [del Greco] saw a prodigious Quantity of Lava Extend itself towards the sea, at the first shabby Osteria at Torre dell Anunziata [dell' Annunziata] the Host ask'd 6 Ducets viz 25 shillings for a little Supper & beds for 3 Persons we therefore proceeded to see how we should fare at the other end of this little Town & agreed for the above wants for 24 Carlins about 9 sh[illings], having made our Bargain we proceed'd about 2 miles further to examine Pompeia which occupied the fields to our left —

we walked over the vineyard & enter'd this ancient city by a Gateway leading into the high street — broad stone pavement, 11 ft over a pathway on each side of 4 ft included without the gate but close at hand are two large semicircular seats for the Inhabitants to set & Gossop, Flax[man] has made a sketch of one — they have a noble appearance — near these is a large tomb to the Aruntian Family, see F[laxman's] book also a little altar & part of the town wall, Immediately within the gate on the left hand is a little kind of shop where they sold warm liquors the counter inlaid with marble & the front of the shop ornamented with little marble heads, almost facing this is a Bagnio, as they think, & 2 or 3 doors further an apothecary's shop surgeon's shop, as here a great Quantity of chirurgical Inst[rumen]ts were found — some larger houses further on with Columns or I believe Pilasters with little figures to form the Capitals very ugly in the effect, the shops are remarkably small, as are the houses except a few of the most Principal, they are generally but one story high & I observ'd no windows

Page 69 Most of the houses have a middle internal Court with a fountain in the middle & round this the rooms are built the inside walls are Painted very Prettily in fresco but most of these have been transported to the Cabinet at Portici, we saw some little flying figures very graceful little Pieces of Architecture with doors half open & figures coming out, some little groups, Diana & Endymion &c

at a little distance without the Town they have found a Country house which is on rather a larger scale a very pleasant Garden — baths [?setting] Rooms round the Cortile &c — here they say they found the Master with a bunch of Keys in his hand much Specie lying by him & his dog near him, he is suppos'd to have been endeavouring his escape from the back door but alas poor man in vain The Soldiers quarters have also been discover'd the {& a Colonade} Barracks sketches {very rude} & names on the walls & a vast quantity of Bones &c — we saw a Pretty Temple {of Isis} of which F[laxman] has a sketch, part of the Theatre, another little Temple on an Eminence at the Entrance of some of the doors in the flooring {which is of marble} inlaid the word Salve in very large Letters, to greet the comers in, the thought pleas'd me & I think shews the owners to have been of amiable dispositions little whims of this sort sometimes pourtray the real disposition with more truth than things of seemingly more consequence

having seen all we could & evening coming on we return'd to our Inn to supper, the chief Dish being of Macaroni {& cheese} a thing we had not as yet learnt to like, a giblet soup too salt to be eaten, a dried fowl which they call'd roast'd the Host himself so Civil that we could not find it in our hearts to complain of our bad fare so we mutter'd a little to ourselves, comfort'd ourselves with a bottle of Porter which we had brought with us & went to rest after having made a few notes of the above occurrances —

The beds were new that is the straw was clean so that we Slept Comfortably & on Thursday morning pass'd by Pompeii on our way to Paestum — we dine'd in the Carriage on the road side, on our own provisions, we stopp'd 2 miles short of Solerno [Salerno] at Vetri [Vietri sul Mare], at a private Page 69v house & seem'd to belong to an honest Taylor we agreed for 6 Carlins a piece for lodging & supper, after a little nap occasion'd by a head ach we went out to view the Town, which was situate close to the sea, we visited the kitchen & found some knuckles of Pork hanging up just salted we pitched on one & with much difficulty & persuasion we got permission of the hostess to have it boil'd for supper no one of this little household seem'd willing or able to dress what they had provided luckily our friends footman undertook that task & perform'd a Mervielle there was rice soup fowls roasted & boil'd the aforesaid knuckle of Pork which turn'd out hard — Eggs & sallad & wine with a little Rossoli [237]  crown'd our Repast & we went quiet & Contentedly to Rest, on Friday Morning Early we renew'd our journey at Salerno we took Post horses & by the contrivan[c]e of the Postilion were taken to Eboli, 4 miles out of our way, the Road a very fine one, round the bay of the sea, at Eboli we chang'd horses for cats [explained below], {& cut} into a cross Road we pass'd the Kings hunting House & found the Road from hence to Paestum so Intolerably bad that I was frighted out of my senses, I left the carriage in many Places for fear of being thrown out we pass'd over a River the carriage was in danger of being push'd into the Stream on account of a very steeply descent the driver was an Ignorant Lad & our friends servant had staid behind at Salerno with the horses, there was the same difficulty on the other side to get up the steep into the road — for the poor horses had no more strength than cats, however all was happily effected by the M[ajor] who got much admir'd for his strength and dexterity by the bargemen for when all things were in the Barge to pass the Ford — viz men women asses horses mules muletiers [. . .] chaise &c it stuck so fast in the ground that they could not stir it which difficulty was greatly augmented by these good People's stupidity in using {all} their little strength at one corner only of [the] Page 70 Vessel which our friend observing Impatiently got out & uniting superior skill to Old England's strength he soon set the Vessel afloat stepp'd in & away we went, the men gaz'd & marvell'd & forza (strength) was echoed on all sides, we continued our way through fields of Plough'd Land The Road intolerably bad every 5 minutes in danger of having our necks broke, often sticking in the mud however we happily arriv'd & Joyful was I when I saw the distant Temples rise to view having heartily repented {more than once} of my Undertaking to visit these Greek curiosities, we enter'd the gate of Paestum anciently Possidonia [Poseidonia] & view'd with great satisfaction the beautiful Remains of 3 fine Greek temples {in good preservation} Grand & Noble & and withal simple beyond Modern Ideas

the Place of the amphitheater & Circus the vestiges of these are almost level with the earth, we traced the high Street to the Gate of the City endeavour'd to find its Circumference & concluded it must have been a fine place rich spot these remains are on an open Plain having {an amphitheatre &} high mountains on side & the sea at about a mile distance on the other, with a few huts for the Labourers who till the ground sprinkled here & there in one of these hovels we were oblig'd to take up our quarters for that night as it was too late to get to any to of the neighbouring Towns we'd far'd as badly as we expected nothing to be got but black bread & eggs & not a spoon to be found to eat them with indeed the hostess scarce seem'd to know what a spoon was the next morning we arose took a review of the buildings & set off — .

The village of Capaccio is situate on the side of one of the neighboring mountains from whence it is said these ruins were first discover'd by a young artist who was visiting his friends here & strolling higher than usual up the Mountain on a fine clear day he discover'd something in the distance & his Curiosity led him to search out the spot & having found these building[s] he told his Master of them on his return & the Matter was properly sought into — & by this means they became known to the Public — with the renewal of our Journey were renew'd my fears, altho' we chiefly return'd by another Route, however neither persuasion Page 70v nor ridicule could keep me from walking a great part of the way untill we had regain'd the high road —

We got to Salerno about 6 O Clock found a good Inn, 6 Carlins per head for a Good Supper of Broth, Bouillli [bouilli] Fish, Capretta, an Omlette, sallad & fruit, good Beds, chearful Countenances & a hearty Welcome, we eat heartily, rested well, took Coffee in the morning & set off —

Salerno seem'd to be a pleasant clean little Town but we could get no good Butter in it at so short a Notice we reconoitered our old friend the Taylor at the neat Villa & as it was a rainy uncomfortable day we stopp'd at a half-way house & got some Eggs and wine & arriv'd at the Dogana of Naples about 6 in the Evening here we were detain'd for near an hour by an Ignorant Impertinent fellow on account of a bag of Oats which he thought had been [...] he got well reprimin'd for his ill tim'd officiousness & we were suffer'd to proceed to our Inn — {Sunday} Feb[ruary] 16 where we were kindly welcom'd by our good Land Lady Madame Bonteux —


About the 22 of January we took the resolution of Mounting Vesuvius — having visited it & viewed it at a little distance several times before always looking forward with some degree of perturbation towards that enterprize — Post off in good spirits about 9 O'Clock from Naples. We gave a friendly look at the statues in the 2 Courtyards at Portici & turn'd to our left towards the Mountain the Muleteers accosted us by dozens & after much altercation 3 mules were pitch'd on & the price settled which I believe was 3 Pauls per Mules great tremblings came on as I approach'd the Monster. we stopp'd at the bottom of the rising Ground to eat our Dinner which we had with us consisting of Cold Boil'd Beef Salame Bread & Cheese & Porter. Many doubts arose in my mind during this repast — which the kind persuasions of my Companions rather seem'd to strengthen — but woman like when they offer'd to return & send the Mules away I began to be asham'd of my weakness & resolutely resolv'd Page 71 at all Events to go forward I took an additional draught of Strong Beer was plac'd on my Mule & brought up the rear most Gallantly singing the old song of when I was a Young one no girl was like me —

Take Care was often Echoed, on account of much scatter'd Laver that had form'd itself into hard masses & lay Just in the way we mounted on these mules as far as we possibly Could that is till the ascent became too steep & the Soil Sandy — we then dismounted & left the Mules with a Boy & proceeded on foot with the guide who undertook the care of me the men having thick clubs to sustain themselves on the which sank pretty deep in the sandy Bottom as did our feet I found myself fairly cover'd to the calves of my legs great part of the way & was often in danger of loosing my shoes with the weight of sand that got into them in some places I mounted Heroically alone with the help of a Club but in others I was forc'd to submit to lay hold of the Guides Girdle & let him lug me up often resting for Breath & Strength but never for Courage having once begun the ascent —

for the most part we lost half of our Labour by the sand giving way so much at every step — when we came to the top of the first Mountain we descended a little to begin the second Cone which led to the mouth the ground began to be very hot & of a Brimstone Color — the smell became strong & the smoke offensive, particularly when the wind blew it in our faces, Flaxman halted within about [...] yards of the top & honestly I myself gave way when I was within about ten & chiefly owing to a great puff of {sulphureous} smoke that came across me & allmost took away my Breath, however the Guide & the Major Insisted on my Proceeding which I did & past the smoke by holding out a handkerchief to my mouth & nose & thus by the help of the Guide I went to the very Edge & look'd down into the first Page 71v hollow which I clearly saw was red & yellow by the wind blowing the Smoke for a few minutes on the other side as if on purpose the smoke rose perpendicularly, for some yards from the internal mouth which was at the bottom of the Cap & then was dispers'd according to the winds pleasure — a few minutes observation satisfied my curiosity as I found it rather difficult to breathe surrounded by so much Sulphur I pick'd up a piece of the sulphureous matter which was rather too hot too hold however I manag'd to keep it & [. . .] with a double satisfaction turn'd my Back on this Curiosity, however I was very unwilling that Flaxman should descend with having to say that he had [not] been at the top therefore we persuaded him to go with the Guide & we would wait where we had left him & take a view of the surrounding Country which from that height was beautiful we had at once an Extensive view of the sea which was perhaps about 2 miles from us — the little Towns of Portici Nola & several others that lay scatter'd about, they [sic] Gulph of Salerno &c & on the other side the City of Naples Monte Nuova [Nuovo] the Convent of the Camalduli [Camaldoli] on another Mountain & in the distance the Pausolippo [Posilippo] the Phlegrean fields {the Elysian fields mare morto} the Bay of Baia &c with the sea terminating the Horizon the ships sinking as it were into her Bosom & loosing themselves to our sight we recall'd to our minds what we had seen in our visits to all these Places & were much delighted, we refresh'd ourselves with some oranges as we sat on a large block of white stone which Vesuvious had thrown up in some of her Passions — & after a good rest we began to descend, this we found much easier than Page 72 our ascent for what was then our misfortune prov'd now otherwise inasmuch as the steps we then lost we now found — as at every step we made a yard — our legs still sink'd beyond the Calves we run down link'd in each others arms, the Guide could scarce keep pace with us sometimes in our mislidings we found ourselves seated upon our Bottoms — [. . .] & as the fatigue & jolting was very violent we were often oblig'd to stop and rest ourselves & we were very glad to find our Patient Mules at the bottom of this Declivity where we had left them we mounted their Backs & descended the rest of the Mountain & soon regain'd the Carriage we seated {& refresh'd} ourselves with the remainder of the Cold Beef & Porter & began to move slowly towards home being about half past 5 O Clock & almost Dusk & thus began & finish'd this grand atchievement during the undertaking of which we met but with one Person besides ourselves had we ascended by the other side of this Mountain & by which Route most People go we should have found a Hermitage about half way up where we should have found a friendly monk who would have regal'd us with wine grapes &c but this particular we forgot and Ignorantly mounted by a more unfrequented path which I think they say is shorter but rather more difficult but this was the choice of our Conductor Shoes stockings legs feet & indeed the whole Machine suffer'd by this Exploit the fatigue remaining in our Bones for some Days. —

On the 22 of February we revisited Pompeia took a walk of about 5 miles & on our Return found our good friend Mr. Hawkins, [238]  whom we had all given over as dead before our departure from England, our Surprise therefore of finding him in the same house with us was of Course very great — he drank tea & supp'd with us & the next Day Sunday Flaxman made him a Sketch of his Turkish Servant — & I began to Pack up for Page 72v our Return to Rome, we however took a little saunter all together on the Quay before Dinner & in the Evening a ride to Morgher's to collect some Prints &c

& on Monday the 24 about Eleven OClock we bid adieu to our new found friend, & sett off the weather being very unfavorable for our Journey at the Extremity of the Town we took Coffee & about 8 miles further a brisk shower coming on we took shelter under a gateway & made a sort of a Dinner on some cold Roast Turky & boil'd beef with [which] we had in our Old Cupboard & about 5 in the Evening we landed at Caserta near the Royal Palace the which we went to see & of which I can say nothing about but that it is very large for being all in Dishabille & the Family being there we chose only to take a View of the Exterior Parts {such as the Gardens Cascades & the room of Statues all in disorder} the stair cases, chappel &c We had before receiv'd a most Polite Invitation from Sir Wm. Hamilton [239]  to spend a few days at his House at this Place in which case we should have seen all the Palace & every thing else worth seeing but F[laxman] was Impatient to get to Rome & had not intirely got rid of his Ague & therefore refus'd the offer nor did he make it known that he pass'd that way — we slept at the Inn & the next day Pursued the new road towards Capua — in our way there we recogniz'd the spot where we had our downfall, & also the Theatre &c of Old Capua, we found by the road side 2 large Antique Tombs one of which was very high & the other low & round pretty large & niches on the outside The Gentlemen descended to Examen but came to no certain decision except that they were Tombs — & indeed no Inconsiderable ones —

Page 73 We pass'd through new Capua but did not revisit our Inn as we had our Provisions with us F[laxman] chose as the day was fine to eat in fresco accordingly when we had got to a favorable spot we stopt & regal'd ourselves filling our water bottle from the Streamlet that cours'd the side of the high Road soon after this repast we found ourselves amongs[t] the mountains through which we wound ourselves admiring the beautiful shrubs &c that grew up their sides (for this part of the Road is Cut through the high Ground) & about 5 O Clock we paid our Comp[limen]ts to Old Dorly & his wife of whom I spoke before whilst tea was preparing we stroll'd into the Town which was a little way to the left of our Inn, Its situation was the ancient Sessa, but we saw no traces of Antiquity except part of the old pavement, we return'd drank tea wrote remarks read Shakespear supp'd moderately & to Bed we went first having been disturb'd by 2 thieves {one of} whom stole our Cold Beef & the other Made off with the remains of a Turkey — which was intended for our next days dining we repair'd this loss as well as we could by storing up a quarter of a Capretta left at supper — in the morning we cook'd some chocolate & left old Dorly with Thankfulness about 9 O Clock we pass'd through a fine Road with young Aloes growing on the Banks to our Right & Mountains in the distance we cross'd the Garigliano & stopp'd by the side of a babbling Brook to satisfy our hunger nor were we alone — we had women washing on one side children Playing on the other Pigs grunting behind & the sea in the distance to our left we deposided all our Victuals safely in our Stomachs presented a few grains of money to the Infantry & proceeeded

Page 73v we pass'd through a Piece of English Road but soon the likeness fail'd & we found ourselves surrounded by olive grounds the People very busy gathering the fruit which its trees yielded in Abundance — then again we had a clear view of the Peeked Mountains with two or three little villages scatter'd on their sides & to our left a fine green Sea — We got to Mola de Gaeta about 2 O Clock the weather unfavorable after some waiting & more to do we got the waiter to unlock a Chamber door we stow'd our Baggage & went to the Coffee house which was next door the Inn being situated pleasantly on the Quay close to the sea we here met with a Party going to Naples & the Gent[leman] paid four Grains (or halfpence) for our Coffee unknown to us at which Flaxman was much disturb'd untill they assured him it was the Custom of the Country —

The weather clearing up we rambled through some orange groves that were delightful except that the fruit was bitter we saw some ruins Pavement &c wash'd by the sea which they told us had been Cicero's Villa — we return'd to our Inn — made some notes work'd drank tea supp'd & slept till 8 O Clock the next morning we did not set off till Eleven O Clock owing to the rain — the road hilly, we stopp'd at Fondi about 3 hours after & got some Eggs an Omlette &c —

we stopp'd just without the gate for our passports, we got to Terricina, was welcom'd by Monsieur Monclergon who by the by did not seem to forget the former menaces he had receiv'd from the Major although near 2 months since nor was our Supper so good as formerly perhaps on the same account however we had no great need of complaint & we knew our Beds would be Excellent & we were rejoic'd to find the sun shine in at our windows on Friday Morning not Intending to make a long stage that Day {we set off very late} however when we got to the half way house Page 74 we consider'd within ourselves that the Situation was in the Marshes that the accomodations were very bad &c &c we tried to get oats for the horses & agreed one & all to proceed no oats to be got we bought some Coarse brand bread & soak'd it in wine with which they seem'd well pleas'd & contentedly took us to Cisterno being almost twice as far as we first Intended we did not arrive till after dark & the rain came on pretty fast — here we paid 5 Pauls per head & for which we had a meat Pidgeon broth, Pidgen & a [?half] Boil'd & Do[zen] Roasted an omelette Sallad Eggs — & our beds full of fleas much disturb'd by the Snoring of some Travellers in an adjoinig room & Flax[man] but poorly. Cisterno is a Pleasant looking village but miserably provided with the Comforts of life [240]  we left it at 10 O'Clock the next morning after a little disputing about Corn hay &c

We rode round the mountains had some pleasant views of Terricina & other villages past through Velitri where F[laxman] & Simon Marketed for a salsitia [salsiccia, sausage] which prov'd to be very good & serv'd to set of[f] & help [?out] a little cold fowl which they had bought at Terricina & got roasted where we last slept we made a delightful repast {in the carriage} among the Mountains about 2 miles on this side Velitri, we stopp'd 6 miles short of Albano & endeavour'd to make an agreament with a shabby host who kept a chandler's shop there being no regular Inn in this Village {Gensano [Genzano]} but he ask'd an Imposing Price we took [?huff] & proceeeded to our Old Inn at Albano paid 5 Pauls per head & agreed to give 2 more for a good Supper which we had Consisting of a Soup 2 Pidgeons a quarter of Capretto roasted 6 Larks a Sallad an Omelette for Flax[man] apples & good Wine after this hot Pot & to Bed in the morning we staid till near Eleven O Clock Flaxman being but Poorly, the good Landlord tack'd 3 Pauls additional to his Bill, for firing, & one Page 74v the omelette we paid one & left him for the first 6 miles the road was very good but afterward became Intolerable so that we were forced to quit the high Road & seek our way across the fields which owing to the rains that had fallen were in some Places very Clayey & in one of these soft spots poor Simon got a fall & rose party Color'd, but luckily not much hurt we stopp'd & refresh'd ourselves at a little hut by the Aqueducts of Claudia & proceeded with fear & trembling rain came on about half an hour before we reach'd the gates of Rome, we went to Smiths Hotel which was full we next tried the M[ajor's] old Lodgings were successful & took up our abode there thankfully, the Master of the house not being in the way no Price was agree'd on that Evening Simon got drunk for Joy among his Old Companions & left us to manage for ourselves we got some little supper & rested well — but the next Morning the Master of the house [241]  came to settle we had a Grand dispute to sustain which & to prevent being much impos'd on I was forc'd to exert myself wonderfully in my new acquir'd Language, he ask'd 12 sequins per month [242]  for 3 rooms & the use of the Kitchen we agreed to give him 6 whilst we remain'd 3 Persons & 4 when our friend should leave us this was taken with much hesitation & we staid there 2 months & sorry were they when we quitt'd the common Price for these apartments as we have since learnt being 2 Sequins only —  [243] 

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Our next Quarters were indeed very Comfortable Situate in the Piazza Mignanelle [Mignanelli] next door to [...] Cardinal Finochetti our front door was in the Town & our back door open'd on the Trinita di Monte from which Place we had a most delightful View of the City — for this set of Chambers we Paid 110 crowns per annum—

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Page 75 To speak of the Beauties of Rome in detail would be an endless task indeed I shall therefore only make here some Memorandums of those things which most attracted my notice, referring to Vasi's description for Particulars [244] 

of the remaining antiquities which I took most Pleasure in viewing were the Rotunda, the Columns of Trajan and Antoninus {75}, the ruins of the Campo Vaccino {86} or Forum Romanum, the two fine Horses & statues of Monte Cavallo, the Balustrade of Colossal Figures & trophies in front of the Capitol, with the fine Equestrian statue of M[arcus] Aurelius in Bronze in the Center of the area {84}, The Triumphal arches of Titus Sept[imius] Severus & Constantine, the Temple of Vesta, Coliseum [Colosseum]; the remains of the Circus of Caracalla & Tomb of Cecilia Metella without the walls of Rome the remains of the ancient Aqueducts which ornament the Campania the Many stupendous Egyptian Obelisks which rear their Heads to beautify the City, & the Immense Pyramid of Gaius Cestius at the Gate of St. Paul & which proves as a principle Object to the English burial Place

— Of the Modern Buildings that please me most are St. Peters Church with the grand Colonnade & spacious area {92}, the Capitol design'd by M[ichel] Angelo & the marble stairs heading up to St. Maria in AraCieli [St. Maria d̓Aracoeli] — & that most Noble & useful flight of steps which lead to Trinita di Monte ——

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[This concludes the Journey to Rome. The next thirty pages of Flaxman's notebook are a translation from volume five of Lalande's Voyage en Italie. Flaxman entitles the section "Manners & Customs of the Romans." The translation is nearly word-for-word at the beginning, but grows more compressed and makes more omissions as it goes along. Among the topics covered are the ceremonies for inducting a pope, holy week ceremonies, the population and great families of Rome, the cost of living, food and drink, Roman social life (of which Lalande disapproves), cicisbeos, fashion, the need for women to be accompanied if outside, convents, laziness, crime and the sheltering of criminals, gratuities, theatres, carnival, the art trade, money, politics, individual popes, and the academies. Although the portions that Flaxman chose to translate do reveal something of her interests, this portion of the notebook, including its often negative comments about Rome and the Romans, cannot be considered part of the Journey to Rome. The translation from Lalande is followed by a five-page account, in the style of the Journey to Rome, of three separate excursions to Frascati:] Page 90v


1788 Frascati  [245] 

Sept. 24

Tuesday being but poorly we set off to Frescati [Frascati] 24 with Mrs Dev[aere] — the voiturier cheated us poor for 3 times over — he made us pay a Sequin for the Carriage 4 Pauls for a false billet of Permission & set us down at the bottom of the hill that leads to the Town [246]  Saying Carriages could not mount it — but this was false & himself a great Scoundrel, but this character is by no means Novel in this Climate, [. . .] at Elizabetta Souffiera's Just without the Port St Pietro we found our Friends Mr Smith & Ruissen [247]  who had just finish'd their dinner [?ham] we soon got a pair of Dishes toss'd up, a bargain struck &c a Portuguese who inhabited the most Private room politely gave it up to us being women[.] we paid 4 Pauls a Day per head for all things included & were tolerably well treated our dinner consisting generally of soup alesso, a fricasee — some steaks or else a humido, with plenty of Grapes & figs &c We all join'd a party to see the Villa's which are here very plenty {with} Beautiful grounds & open to the Public at all times. In the Villa Conti in the highest Ground is a large Pool surrounded by small fountains & surrounded by a woody scene, a very large flight of steps conducts from the upper Garden to the lower in which also is a large fountain & from hence you have a view of Rome the campania [campagna] the sea we had from hence some beautiful effects of the sun Setting in the Ocean, this Villa belong'd to the Conti family, — the Villa Belvidere [Belvedere] has a most beautiful walk winding up to a very high ground on which they say was situated the ancient Tusculum

Page 91 at Every turning the walk is lin'd with different Trees as the Cypress walk the Laurel walk &c they have plac'd benches at convenient distances to rest on & from whence are seen most beautiful views of the Country in the Villa itself there is nothing remarkable but the water works are Curious the water descends from a great height & falls down a flight of stairs below is an amphitheatre ornamented with bas reliefs & Statues here Atlas is in the Middle Nich supporting a Globe from whence issues the water Numberless waters play on all sides, there is also in one of the side Niches a Centaur blowing his horn, effected by means of water works & opposite is a figure of Pan playing on his reeds who neatly plays a pretty tune in the Middle they let off a large Girandole [girandola, Catherine wheel] which makes a Noise to Imitate Fireworks, in some {one} of the side Buildings is a room which they call Parnassus here they shew Apollo & the muses sitting on the Mount with their different Instruments & an organ Plays by Virtue of the water, Pegasus who is at the foot of the Mount Neighs to the great astonishment of the beholders, this diversion Ends by putting a Ball over a hole in the middle of the floor from whence proceeds such a strong wind occasioned by the Motion of the descending water that the Ball dances in the air — the Room is Painted in fresco by Dominichino [Domenichino], & is reckon'd as some of his best Performances, under the Shady Trees of this Villa I have spent some few hours (in reading Homer whilst Flaxman was drawing hard by) the which I often remember with satisfaction & delight —

the walks of the Villa Borghese are of great Extent & allways shady they afford delightful Walks in a Page 91v summer's morning these Walks lead to the Villa Mondragone in which is the famous Colossal head of Antinous [248]  from the Balcony a charming View of the Neighboring mountains, one of which is Monte Portia famous for being the Inheritance of the Cato Family another for being the ancient Tusculum, but the Principal & which indeed is very high, & call'd Monte Cavo, where now stands a Convent of Friars, there was formerly a Temple to apollo they do say that it was hence Hanibal shew'd his Army the City they were going to fight for, — on another hill stands a little village call'd Rocca del Papa to arrive at which you Traverse through a most beautiful {rising} wood we took refreshment under a Cluster of Trees {not Entering the Village} & proceeded to move upwards we whirl'd upwards and onwards towards the Convent above Mention'd but were forc'd to [go] back before we gain'd the Summit, or we should not have reach'd Frescati to dinner and at Rocca del Papa our researches for such a Repast however simple, were fruitless however we had a most pleasant walk indeed round the Mount the ascent being almost imperceptible & lin'd by green Hedges like an English Country lane, a fine view of the Country much below us, a hanging wood the famous Lake of Albano, castle Gondolfo Marino & other little village[s] all Scatter'd about with[in] 2 miles of each other & the Green sea & Rome in the distance I was indeed very Sorry to turn back nor should hunger have induc'd me I verily believe, but we had left one [of] our party to take care of our mules in the wood below we regain'd our Beasts all except one whom we found dead, & return'd with an Excellent appetite to dinner. the custom of rising about Frescati on Asses is admirable as it tires less than walking & is attain'd at a little Expense 2 Carlini's or 7 pence half penny being the Price of one ass for the day [249]  — here also the Ladies may visit the Page 92 Coffee house without Scandal the Quality setting the Example We often found Princess Bracciana [Bracciano] & her Companions there attended by abbate's & Cavaliers Serviente without End — we had a pleasant ride on ass Back to the Convent of Capucins [250]  or rather to the Cross which is plac'd some few paces before the Convent door, for a woman to pass this Cross advancing towards the Convent she wo[u]ld be Excommunicated we stopt short therefore & sat down of [on] the Parapet wall & one of the Party went to fetch Provision from the Convent, he soon return'd with wine bread figs &c for we had not breakfasted it was all very good and we eat Drank & laugh'd ve[r]y heartily enjoying pleasant view from this height as usual & return'd much satisfied & thus did we spend a few happy days in & about this little Village of Frescati we often met the Cardinal Duke of York, [251]  who never fail'd to make his bow they say he speaks English very fluently & with the same accent as though he had been bred up in England — he has plac'd a sorry Tomb in the Cathedral to the memory of the late King his Brother & fails not since his death to have every Object belonging to him [...] with the Crown & title of King of England &c

to a little church at Grotto Ferrata is a very fine Picture by Dominiquin [Domenichino], a saint deliv[er]ing a child Possess'd —

The Frescatani's are reckon'd Pretty we did not find them so — their dress is peculiar — their Stays open on each side flower'd Coats sleeves tied to their shoulder straps with Bunches of Ribbons & a coarse towel laid flat on their heads the better sort have fine lawn handkerchiefs folded Cornerwise, the rich of course if any there are Imitate as much as they can the Romans —

we have to be sure seen some pleasing figure's & I am sure spent many happy days — 4 Pauls a head for Lodging Dinner & supper — a civil Hostess pleasantly situated & Page 92v for an Italian tolerably cleanly — [252] 

On Sunday afternoon we all set off on Assess towards Rome where we arriv'd about 8 O Clock the Guide and Sumpter Mule bringing up the Rear — the whole party supp'd at our house we talk'd over our late adventures & slept well after our 15 Miles Jumble —

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April 9 [1789]

Tuesday having been but poorly for some days Flax took Mrs D[evaere] & me to Frescati for a week the air of this Place having so well restor'd me to health during my last abode there, we took some pleasant Morning Walks in the Gardens of Villa Mondragone where we generally met with his Excellency Cardinal Duke of York on foot who always honor'd us with a Bow he gives his Blessing in general to the faithful when they humble themselves before him, but out of Frescati they say it is of no avail — on Friday Morning Mr Ruissel came to Breakfast with 2 french Princes after which they took asses to visit the Villas Grotta ferrata &c & Return'd to Rome to dinner, Saturday very stormy which caus'd me a most violent headach & poor flaxman who came in the evening with Mr Dev[ea]r[e] found me in bed [253]  however on Sunday I rose perfectly well and we went after breakfast to Villa Mondragone to see the fine Bust of Antinous, the water works & a few mediocre Statues &c after dinner we took assses & rode with Hostess through the Grounds of Belvidere up to ancient Tusculum we had a very sorry ass in Company Monday Morning at 6 O Clock we took Coffee & mounted our asses for Rome where we arriv'd about 10 O Clock Mrs. [?Darlow] came to dinner —

Sept. 28 1788 [1789]

Flax[man] & self went to Frescati for a fortnight having first dispatch'd some Letters to Old England to fr[ien]ds George, Mary, Matthers Herbert &c —

Page 93 Tuesday we revisited our old friends the Villa's Borghese Belvidere &c saw the water works & the Casino,

Friday Oct[o]b[er] 2d — we took a most delightful walk round the Ground of the Falconiere a very large Olive Ground in the form of an Amphitheatre, on the high Ground we came very unexpectedly to a Square piece of water with a simple plantation of Yew trees, the whole delighted me very much —

Saturday F[laxman] went to Rome & Return'd but poorly in the Evening the Wife of the Pope's Farrier came with a large Party

Sunday Innis [254]  the English Taylor & Wife came, a party to dinner of 14 Much Nonsense & Noise & but little delicacy in Cutting up the Provisions, Monday Mr Hamilton & Harriet [255]  came for 2 days — Wed — walk'd with friends 3 miles towards Rome — Friday walk'd in the garden of Pallivicini a picturesque View of Frescati &c from hence — the weather very unfavorable for some days being wet & windy {2} Great Enemies to the Pleasures of a Country Retirement — on Sunday aft[ernoon] we join'd two decent Italians in a Coach & return'd to Rome the day delightful — dr[ank] tea at Hamiltons & thus finish'd our third Excursion to Frescati —


[1] Ann's friend and fellow teacher Miss De la Cour. BACK

[2] Literally the dirty gutter that ran down the middle of city streets. BACK

[3] The Marine Pavilion, designed for the Prince in 1787 by Henry Holland, in the French neoclassical style. BACK

[4] Xenophon's Anabasis tells of the fleeing army shouting "Thalassa, thalassa" (the sea, the sea) and bursting into tears of joy when they finally spotted the Black Sea. BACK

[5] Unidentified; Dieppe was the usual jumping-off point for continental tours. BACK

[6] Author's Note: I saw women carrying great stones in baskets which were fastened to their shoulders to fill a frame of a mole, as they are going to make a new canal from this place to Paris. Their garments scarce cover their knees, their legs and feet bare. BACK

[7] Author's Note: At Deipe or Calais they will only give a louis for an English guinea but at Brighton or Dover they will not give you guineas for louis. A louis is about 20 shillings or 24 livres. A livre is 10 pence English, a Shilling is in France a 24 sous piece, 6 pence is a 12 sous, and 3 pence is 6 sous, [...] and [...] sous pieces and six Liards which is three farthings. BACK

[8] Author's Note: at a Church in France Mr. F gave a poor man a six Livre who not being accustom'd to have so much given him at once offer'd back change which was distributed between him and another after they had look'd at Each other with astonishment offer'd up a prayer I said one for the donor BACK

[9] Travellers generally hired vehicles in France, although the wealthy sometimes had their own coaches shipped from England. BACK

[10] Author's Note: Rouen abound[s] in Fountains & bag wigs — the Choir of the Cathedral has a fine screen of Brass with Figures BACK

[11] Built in 1626 and replaced in the early 19th century with a masonry bridge, it could be dismantled to let larger vessels ascend the river. BACK

[12] Louis de Breze, Grand Seneschal of Normandy, d. 1531; the monument is attributed to Jean Cousin the elder and Jean Goujon. BACK

[13] Author's Note: Orgon in the Moon BACK

[14] L'Orphelin Anglais, a play by de Longueil. L'Orgon dans la Lune, a comic opera, either that by Goldoni which played in 1789 at the Theatre de Monsieur, or that by Paisiello and Lépidor, c.1777. BACK

[15] John Flaxman had previously corresponded with the Duke on behalf of Wedgwood. The Duke pressed them to stay long enough for John to model his bust, but they chose to rejoin their party instead (Add. Mss. 39787, f.7, qtd. in Houpt). BACK

[16] British Library Add. Mss. 39786, ff. 36v, 37v. BACK

[17] Author's Note: a Court day — flattery predominates — the Duke very Civil to me sat on his right hand at dinner — long list of eatables presented me Butter in his Cupboard — English Beer BACK

[18] Author's Note: at this Place the servant a merry looking girl offer'd herself to my Service as she wish'd much to see England very dirty inn BACK

[19] Maria Cosway, 1760-1838, English miniature painter, known to history also because Thomas Jefferson fell in love with her in 1788. Her husband, Richard Cosway, was one of the founding members of the Royal Academy. The Flaxmans had briefly met her while in England. BACK

[20] Probably James Smith (1749?-after 1797), American painter and repeated visitor to Rome. He had lived chiefly in Italy since 1774, with at least one period of residence in England. In 1789-91 he shared quarters with the Flaxmans' friend Bunce, and is identified as "Inglesi" in the Italian records. But possibly also an English painter, Charles Smith, who is recorded as living in Rome in 1790, or another Smith, though not watercolorist John "Warwick" Smith or antiquarian James Smith of Jordanhill, F.R.S. The unidentified Mr. Smith is mentioned several times in Journey to Rome; in Ann's diary from February and March 1791; and, as a "history" painter, in a 1793 list of artists living in Rome (Ingamells 866-67; Matthew and Harrison entries on "Smith"; Add. Mss. 39790, f. 16). BACK

[21] Thomas Banks, 1735-1805, English sculptor, who had spent the years 1772-79 in Rome. Banks and John Flaxman are often considered the leaders of the English neoclassical movement in sculpture. BACK

[22] L'Enfant trouvée or Alexis has not been traced. L'Amours d'Ete is by Pierre-Yves Barre. André-Ernest-Modeste Gretry, 1741-1813, was the leading composer for the Comédie Française. BACK

[23] Home of the Royal Academy, where John Flaxman regularly exhibited. Old Somerset House, a former Tudor palace, was torn down in 1775 and its replacement erected between 1776-1801. Flaxman would have seen the Strand Block and some other portions completed before her departure. BACK

[24] Thomas Byerly, nephew and representative of Josiah Wedgwood, on whose connections with John Flaxman see the Introduction. BACK

[25] The water "stagecoach" on the Seine. BACK

[26] A 13th-century monument in which St. Denis is one of the intercessors. BACK

[27] None of the monarchs would rest peacefully for long: in 1793 a Revolutionary mob attacked the church, opening the royal tombs and scattering the bones. BACK

[28] One of the smaller palaces Louis XIV had built near Versailles. Most commentators found both the architecture and the gardens splendid. The waterworks here drew water from the Seine. BACK

[29] Among the sights Flaxman mentions here are the Neptune Basin and other fountains; the Grotto of Thetis; the colonnade ("circular temple") by Jules Hardouin Mansart, built in 1684; two sculptures by Girardon, Apollo Tended by Nymphs, c. 1666-73, and The Rape of Proserpine 1677–79, pedestal 1699; and the Ceres Fountain, designed by Charles Le Brun. BACK

[30] The future kings Louis XVIII and Charles X. The Duke of Normandy, Louis's second son, would be proclaimed Louis XVII by Royalists after the execution of his father; he died in 1795. BACK

[31] In Laurence Sterne's A Sentimental Journey the narrator meets a caged starling whose refrain is "I can't get out." BACK

[32] The Flaxmans' interest in the Sèvres porcelain factory was doubtless augmented by John Flaxman's association with its British equivalent, Wedgwood's factory. BACK

[33] Author's Note: Mons. Regnier directeur BACK

[34] This palace, by Lemercier, was begun in 1633 and later given to the king by Richelieu. BACK

[35] Vauxhall was a popular public garden in London. BACK

[36] A reference to the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of protestants in 1572. BACK

[37] Author's Note: The Louvre was begun by Bernin [Bernini] an Italian Architect & finish'd by Perrault formerly a Physician which caus'd's this raillery that Architecture must be in a bad way as they had put it into the hands of a Physician he answer'd these Sarcasm's by Producing a Beautiful Colonade a chef d'ouvre [d'œuvre] of French Architecture & admir'd by all Europe BACK

[38] In this case the members of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture, established 1648. BACK

[39] Author's Note [in left margin]: Charles 1st of En[gland] gave up this unhappy Princess to the fury of C[ardinal] Richlieu [Richelieu] She took Refuge at Cologne where she died in want & misery 1642 BACK

[40] Author's Note: Mr Jubault who liv's near this spot is going to raise an Obelisque in Marble resembling that of Snow whereon he will have engrav'd all the most remarkable of those fastened that were fasten'd to the Other — BACK

[41] Author's Note: This great Minister was skillful in Politicks sacrificing all to his ambition Implacable in his anger the effects of which were Cruel & atrocious he lower'd the Great by System & protected Letters from Vanity. he was an Amateur without Taste — he confounded Corneille with Colletet — mention'd in the description of France BACK

[42] In 1744, Louis XV vowed to replace the half-ruined abbey if he recovered from an illness. The new church, now called the Pantheon, was not finished until 1789, and the dome was ultimately painted by Gros. BACK

[43] The first Christian king of the Franks, Clovis was converted by his wife; they were the founders of this church. BACK

[44] Author's Note: They work the canvas different ways in the old manner it lies flat & is work'd on the wrong side in the present way it hangs up still working it on the wrong side — BACK

[45] By Giambologna and his pupil Tacca; destroyed in 1792 and replaced in 1818 with a reproduction by Lemot. BACK

[46] Author's Note: Spain Franche Compté Rhine the passage of it the Peace of Nimegae [Nimeguen] BACK

[47] Author's Note: in moving this Statue to this Place which took up three days when they pass'd Bouchardon's house they rested and fired Canons to his Memory BACK

[48] Author's Note: Ici on donne à Manger over the meanest Shops is written such & such things Sold by Monsieur or Madmoiselle such an one — I saw in the Environs of Lyons women with their [hair] tolerably dress'd & powder'd — without Shoes or Stockings Of high life I can make no remarks as I paid no Visits BACK

[49] By Coustou; actually completed 1777. BACK

[50] Author's Note: Every one is oblig'd to have their Boxes search'd & their Names registered I strongly suspected I should find our absent friends at this Place thus tho' they left Paris 5 days before we did they had reach'd but half way to Lyons — having pass'd a disagreeable time for nine days — BACK

[51] Flaxman refers here to commercial barges in general rather than to any single company. BACK

[52] By Desjardins; destroyed during the revolution and replaced in 1825 with a replica by Lemot. BACK

[53] Author's Note: Mr Howard has visited this Hospital & express'd his approbation of it — not so at Paris, where they [put] 5 or Six of different distempers in the same Bed — shame, shame — BACK

[54] Flaxman is mistaken about the founder; Freliere is untraced. BACK

[55] Elizabeth Younge (Mrs. Pope) was a leading actress at Drury Lane Theatre in the 1770s; David Garrick was the manager and lead actor. BACK

[56] La Fausse Agnes (1753), by Nericault Destouche. BACK

[57] Author's Note: all through france the desert [dessert] consisted in grapes apples & Diet Cakes BACK

[58] Author's Note [in left margin]: 15 leagues from Lyons Baggage search'd no — BACK

[59] Author's Note: The Post Town in the French Dominion formerly the Labisco of Antonin BACK

[60] Author's Note [in left margin]: one of these Cascades is very Curious it descends 150 feet causing a great Mist BACK

[61] Author's Note: Parapet walks in the most dangerous Places — BACK

[62] Author's Note: we sought diligently for a Mausoleam of the Duchess of Savoie which we were told of, but could find nothing but a figure lying on a coffin in the Church which was a very shabby one — BACK

[63] Author's Note [in left margin]: we told the People we met to send the Coach after us BACK

[64] Author's Note: here is a Castle which we did not see in which the King of Sardinia resides when they come to Chambery he keeps a hundred Soldiers here — we now began to see the swellings in the necks of the mountaineers call'd Goitres — BACK

[65] Author's Note [in left margin]: about Aiguebelle the fall of snows are dangerous in Winter goitres all over these Mountains — near St Jean de Maurienne charles the bald was poison'd it is famous also for the odd reception of Henry 2, by a Party of Bears BACK

[66] The heroine of Marmontel's The Shepherdess of the Alps, first translated in Moral Tales (1768). BACK

[67] Author's Note: this day we pass'd through Montmelian & Aiguebelle or fine water, we found the water of this place itself Yellow & muddy — In winter the sun is scarce ever seen here on account of the heighth of the Rocks in this valley are Mulberry trees nut trees Vines & Corn — it has been noted for ugly women I saw nothing remarkable in this way — BACK

[68] Author's Note: this day we pass'd through St Jean de Maurienne where we drank milk In the Cathedral are many Tombs of the [...] of Savoie but we did not visit them Henry 2d of France met with a singular reception when he pass'd by a company of men dress'd as Bears who caus'd him Great diversion for which he gave them 2000 Crowns BACK

[69] The dog Prissy had been with the Flaxmans since early in their marriage. BACK

[70] Author's Note [in left margin]: we pass'd St Michel which is reckoned half way from Lyons to Turin you hereabouts pass the River Arc frequently over little wooden Bridges — with rapid waters. Modane is a large poor Village the way from here to Lanebourg is hilly & difficult — BACK

[71] An inn. BACK

[72] Author's Note [in left margin]: In general 4 Men are allowed for one tolerable size Person & 8 for a very large one BACK

[73] Author's Note: It is reckon'd about 6 Leagues over this mountain from Lanebourg to there is an Hospital where poor passengers may rest 3 Nights Novalese [now Novalesa] — there is also a Chaple where those poor are buried who die by accident or Cold — In June the top of this Mount is ornamented with fine ranuncules [ranunculus] & other flowers & a thick verdure where Cattle Graze — there is a fair for beasts every Monday during summer BACK

[74] Author's Note: In winter you pass down this Mount in Sledges faire Ramasser [to sledge] — It was from the top of the surrounding Mountains that Hanibal shew'd his Soldiers the Plains of Piedmont & reminded them what a Charming Country they were going to Conquer BACK

[75] Author's Note [in left margin]: Within ten minutes of the bottom is a little Melancholy Village of about 20 houses call'd Ferriers — We met with a Muletier who accosted us in our Own Language which is rather a novelty according to Dr More [Moore] — baggage search'd BACK

[76] Author's Note: about Piedmont there is much fine verd antique Especially near Suze On our Entrance into Italy we found Chapels Images & Crosses in abundance BACK

[77] Author's Note [in left margin]: belongs to the Roi of [...] [Sardinia] BACK

[78] Author's Note: the streets for the most part have a little Rivulet running through the Middle of them with little bridges over them at every thirty or forty Paces — Agreable Views from the Ramparts BACK

[79] Author's Note: Monsieur Vasche and Signore Baldi. BACK

[80] Of these works, only Van Dyke's The Children of Charles I (1635) and Dou's The Dropsical Woman (1663), now at the Louvre, can be definitively identified. BACK

[81] Author's Note: cost 30,000 Livres shillings the Price given for it Turin is reckon'd to contain 100 churches & chapels Money 3 Sequin Pieces — 1 Do — about 9s & 6d — English — Crown ½ Do a Piedmont Livre worth a shilling — BACK

[82] John Flaxman's journal notes the irony of an inscription stating that "strict adherence to mercy and justice distinguished his character" (Add. Mss. 39786, qtd. in Houpt 144). BACK

[83] villagiatura, to stay at a country seat BACK

[84] Author's Note [in left margin]: we fail'd to see the fine museum of the King — for descriptions see note Book BACK

[85] Literally, fat; i.e., including meat. BACK

[86] Author's Note: the Stations terribly slow as often as you say Presto [quick] to them, they answer adesso [presently] — but move not an Inch faster — BACK

[87] Author's Note: we pick'd up our Landlord by the way, who was conducting back some Post horses BACK

[88] Author's Note: The Emperor's Dominions [unattached note to page 24] BACK

[89] Author's Note [in left margin]: the Figure of the Virgin on the [...] BACK

[90] Author's Note: The subject of these basreliefs is the life of St Ambroise On the high Altar is a cross of Diamonds & a nail of the holy Cross Constantine had this nail for his horses bit — BACK

[91] Author's Note: they shew an enormous great toe belonging to a Bronze figure of St Ch[arles] B[oromeo] in the Boromean Islands — 110 feet high Francis 1st was present with [...] when he died — & wept much his well judg'd answer to his exertions — I can make great lords every day but — BACK

[92] Author's Note: A cartoon of his school of Athens — BACK

[93] Dancing Faun and Seated Mercury. John Flaxman notes that "these are from bronzes in the Naples collection" (Add. Mss. 39786, f. 21). BACK

[94] Author's Note: Here F committted a mistake respecting giving Money — BACK

[95] Author's Note: the character much Prais'd by Winkelmann St John has six figures B Grazioli & Andre Alciati have written of the ancient Edifices of Milan [Andrea Alciati, Rerum Patriae, 1625; Pietro Grazioli, De Praeclaris Mediolani Aedificiis (1735)]. BACK

[96] Author's Note: about 2 Miles from Milan is a famous Echo, which repeats 40 times — this we did not go to see BACK

[97] Author's Note: In the Public Place at Piacenza are two Bronze Statues on horseback of its Dukes — the Town hall built in the Style of St Marks at Venice BACK

[98] Author's Note: Parma is a very Considerable City & famous for its cheese — BACK

[99] Madonna of St. Jerome, often called Il Giorno, c. 1528, now in the Parma Gallery. BACK

[100] Author's Note [in left margin]: In this Academy are some good antiques In from Velleia — BACK

[101] The Madonna della Scodella, c. 1525. BACK

[102] Author's Note: This Painter they say died a very young Man by a fever he caught in carrying a great quantity of Copper Money — at Parme we met with the Dean of Norwich & his Niece wife & friend BACK

[103] Author's Note: It seem'd well built, had Portico's to defend the poor from the Rain & plenty of fountains like the rest of Italy BACK

[104] The Fountain of Neptune by Giambologna in the Piazza Maggiore. Flaxman subsequently mentions the portal reliefs of San Petronio by Jacopo della Quercia, 1525-38, Raphael's St. Cecilia, c. 1513-16, and Perugino's Madonna in Glory with the Child and Saints, c. 1495-6; both paintings are now in the Pinacoteca Nazionale, Bologna. BACK

[105] Author's Note: This Lady was wife to a surgeon her Bust is plac'd here in wax, & also that of her husband [Anna Morandi Manzolini, 1714?-1776, Italian physician, sculptor, and official model maker for Bologna University's anatomy department, on whom see Messbarger.] BACK

[106] Probably Philoctetes on the Island of Lemnos (1770), now at the Pinacoteca Nazionale. BACK

[107] Of these works, only Guercino's Abraham Casting Out Hagar and Ishmael (1657) and Raphael's Saint John the Baptist in the Desert (c. 1518) have been definitely identified. BACK

[108] Asinelli and Garisenda Towers, early 12th century. BACK

[109] Author's Note: Loiano BACK

[110] Author's Note: Thursday November 1 BACK

[111] The eighteenth-century Arco di Trionfo by Jadot. BACK

[112] Author's Note: 2 Pauls a head for beds & 8 Pauls a head for dinner & 6 for supper — BACK

[113] Author's Note: here we paid 2 Pauls a day for Rooms & six Pauls for dinner &c BACK

[114] Author's Note: five Quattoni [quattrini] make a Cratzia [crazia] which is a farthing & a half many fountains in this City BACK

[115] Author's Note: Victuals is very cheap indeed to the natives BACK

[116] The Brancacci chapel frescos in the Santa Maria del Carmine. Frescos by Sarto in the courtyard of Santa Annunziata basilica include scenes from the life of St. Filippo Benizzi. BACK

[117] Michelangelo's tomb was designed by Vasari, with sculptures by Lorenzi, Bandini, and Cioli. The paintings by Giotto and Gaddi have not been definitely identified; Irwin believes the latter is Gaddi's cycle in the Baroncelli chapel (John Flaxman 36). The sculptures in the Nicolini Chapel are by Francavilla. BACK

[118] Tomb portrait of Giotto by Benedetto da Maiano, 1490; funeral monument for Brunalesco by Cavalcanti, 1447-48; bust of Ficino by Ferrucci, 1521; monument to Sir John Hawkwood by Uccello, 1436. BACK

[119] Author's Note: Dante died in Banishment at Ravenna where is his Mausoleum the Reliques of this Church are a Nail — pieces of the X [cross] some ashes of [...] facing the Baptistery is a Column rais'd on acct. of some Miracles — BACK

[120] Author's Note: Charles 5 Emperor was so pleas'd with he said it ought to be kept in a case [...] the Body of this Saint rests in there BACK

[121] The Baptistery of St. Giovanne included the remnant of an older church and was often claimed to include a former temple of Jupiter. Always interested in relief work, Flaxman here mentions the east doors by Ghiberti, 1425-52, called the "Porta del Paradiso" by Michelangelo, and the south doors by Pisano, 1336. BACK

[122] Vasari attributed the vault mosaics to Tafi, but they are now attributed to an unknown team of mid-thirteenth-century artists (Andres et al., 179). BACK

[123] The monuments are the tombs of Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Namours, with statues of Night and Day, and Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, with statues of Dawn and Dusk. BACK

[124] The Uffizi, designed by Vasari as the administrative headquarters for Cosimo I dei Medici. BACK

[125] Author's Note: Lord Belgrade was unfortunately in the Party apposited for the day on which we saw them & by the impropriety & Boyishness of his Behaviour not half were shew'd — BACK

[126] Michelangelo, Bacchus, c.1497; Sansovino, Bacchus, c. 1511. Flaxman also mentions Cellini, Ganymede, restored 1545-47, and a second-century Amore e Psiche. BACK

[127] Author's Note: the Marriage of [. . .] the Madona & Child & Angels teaching the Infant Jesus to read by Ghirlandaeo [Ghirlandaio] — pleas'd me most [unattached note to p. 33] BACK

[128] Sleeping Cupid by Caravaggio, 1608. BACK

[129] Author's Note: Tribune design'd by buontalenti BACK

[130] A slight mistranscription of Voltaire's epigram "Sur une statue de Vénus": "Yes, I showed myself nude to the god Mars, to lovely Adonis, to Vulcan also, and I blush for it, but how did Praxitèle see me?" BACK

[131] The sculptures mentioned here, including the Venus de' Medici, are all Greek, or early copies then believed to be Greek; the latter two are commonly called Dancing Faun and Apollino. BACK

[132] Except for Allori's Portrait of Bianca Cappello and Michelangelo's study for The Last Judgement, the specific works that Flaxman admired here cannot be identified. The collection of self-portraits today numbers over 2300; the Reynolds dates from 1775 and the More from 1783. BACK

[133] Author's Note: Flaxman says that whilst M A [Michelangelo] work'd this Bust He recollected his crime & abandon'd the work — an Englishman says the Artist would have finish'd it but he form'd so great an Idea of his work that he stop'd in the Progress fearful that he never could do it justice [The statue dates from before 1540. When it was acquired between 1574-84 an inscription was added to the base to depoliticize the image's anti-Medici content: "While the sculptor was carving the effigy of Brutus out of marble, he came to feel the spirit of the crime and turned away from his work" (Andres et al., 1186).] BACK

[134] This grand hall, housing the classical Niobe group, sometimes called Niobe and Her Children, had been built less than ten years before Flaxman's visit. BACK

[135] Giambologna, Mercury, c.1580. BACK

[136] The Madonna della Sedia or Madonna della Seggiola by Raphael, c. 1514. Georgiana Hare-Naylor was one of Ann's closest friends in Italy, and with her husband Francis Hare-Naylor commissioned John Flaxman's illustrations from Homer. BACK

[137] These extensive gardens with their many sculptures and reliefs belong to the Palazzo Pitti. BACK

[138] Rosso Fiorentino, Assumption of the Virgin, 1516-17, and Sarto, Birth of the Virgin, 1514, both frescos in the Chiostrino dei Voti of the Santissima Annunziata. BACK

[139] Pietà, 1554-59. BACK

[140] This claim, made by his fellow Florentine Vasari, is no longer considered true. BACK

[141] For Cimabue, Giotto, Masaccio, Bartolommeo, da Vinci, Sarto, Ghiberti, Donatello, Brunelleschi, Alberti, and Servandoni, see artists list. Bondinetta is unidentified. Flaxman also mentions the explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) and the philosopher and statesman Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527). BACK

[142] Corilla Olimpica, Abbé Bartolomeo Lorenzi, and Maria Maddalena Morelli (Giuli 304-5, 324). BACK

[143] Author's Note: November 28 1787 left Florence BACK

[144] Author's Note: After spending a very Pleasant month — BACK

[145] St. Jerome and Mary Magdalene, 1661-63. BACK

[146] Author's Note: in ivory and black properly tinted — the History of Moses the Passage of the Red Sea — history of Joshua &c BACK

[147] Three Graces, a Roman copy of a Greek sculpture. The frescoes, 1502-07, probably after designs by Raphael, are more commonly attributed to Pinturicchio. BACK

[148] Author's Note: at Sienna I purchas'd a Marila [probably a mantilla or a cloak (mantello)] that I might not suffer so much from the Cold the next morning & our friend bought some sheep skins for to keep his feet warm — the rest of the churches, Palaces & other curiosities see our Return BACK

[149] Author's Note: Sunday BACK

[150] Author's Note: Capital of ancient Volsci BACK

[151] Author's Note: ancient Clusium is near here — Porsenna — Clealia Mut Scevola [Mucius Scaevola] [...] BACK

[152] Author's Note: a fine falling cascade from a Mountain — fine views — BACK

[153] Author's Note: A Company of the villagers following the Host to a sick person's house BACK

[154] Author's Note: 2 [sic] miles from Rome is the famous Villa Caprarola — near here is the famous Tomb of the Nasos — BACK

[155] Author's Note: held Rum to our nostrils to [. . .] the Effluvia of these Marshes BACK

[156] Now Ponte Milvio, it has been rebuilt since Flaxman saw it. Constantine's is the most famous of the battles fought there. BACK

[157] Author's Note: the ancient Flaminian way who had it pav'd all the way to Rimini It was formerly ornamented with Statues & rocks — at present there are convents chapels & vineyards — under these vineyards are Catacombs BACK

[158] The Piazza di Spagna; the churches are Santa Maria di Montesanto and Santa Maria dei Miracoli. BACK

[159] The Temple of Antoninus and Faustina was not excavated until the nineteenth century. BACK

[160] Author's Note: Madame Damont [Damon's inn], Pd 8 Pauls a head for Dinner Supper & Bed BACK

[161] Thomas Jenkins (1722-1798), art and antiquities dealer, painter, and (after about 1775) banker. He lived in Rome from 1751 until shortly before his death, acting as a sort of unofficial ambassador for Britain and hosting artists at his villa (Osti 94). BACK

[162] Bounded by the Via del Corso, the Via Frattina, and the Via del Babuino, the Strangers' Quarter (often just "English Quarter") was home to many artists and sculptors. BACK

[163] Major Henry Farington Gardner (1746-92), who arrived in Rome around the same time as the Flaxmans, in December 1787, and with whom they made their excursion to Naples the next month. BACK

[164] Author's Note: a sequin is about 9 & 6 BACK

[165] Rebecca Sanders, wife of John Sanders the painter (1750-1825), who entered the Royal Academy school the year before John Flaxman and was a fellow member of the Swedenborgian Theosophical Society (British Library; Matthew and Harrison, "Sanders, John"; Hindmarsh 23n; Add. Mss. 39780, f. 48). BACK

[166] Author's Note: about 40 houses from our Lodgings BACK

[167] Author's Note: This famous way Extended beyond Capua BACK

[168] According to the legend, when Peter realizes that Jesus is willing to sacrifice himself again, Peter takes heart and returns to Rome to face his own martyrdom. BACK

[169] Livy, Ab Urbe Condita 1.26. BACK

[170] The Circus Maxentius or Massenzio, built in 309, was called the Circus of Caracalla until the early nineteenth century. BACK

[171] Author's Note [in left margin]: December 10 BACK

[172] Author's Note: a large boat on the Lake for the country People to divert themselves — a little Brid[g]e over to the Temple BACK

[173] The Greek Borghese Vase; John Flaxman's terra-cotta bas relief, which took him three months, is in the Sir John Soane Museum (Houpt 158); Richard Payne Knight was a classical art connoisseur. Devaere also copied the reliefs for Wedgwood in 1788. Flaxman also mentions the Apollo Sauroctonos, a Roman copy of a Greek original by Praxiteles; the Borghese Gladiator signed by by Agasius of Ephesus, now in the Louvre; and Bernini's Apollo and Daphne (1622-25). The "pretty Genius" is unidentified. BACK

[174] Gavin Hamilton's cycle of eight paintings covered the walls and ceiling; the neighboring room was done by Jacob More. BACK

[175] Moses, c.1513-15. BACK

[176] The frescos are from Nero's Domus Aurea (Golden House), rediscovered during the Renaissance but frequently confused with the later Baths of Titus. The Laocoön was found nearby in 1506. BACK

[177] Author's Note: bonmot [bon mot, witty saying], lo Spirito Santo vive anima in stucco, vedendo la ricchezza di Questo altare [The holy spirit lives in stucco, looking at (or, to judge from) the lavishness of this altar.] BACK

[178] A bronze sculpture, probably Etruscan, with the figures of Romulus and Remus added later. BACK

[179] A hugely influential second century Roman sculpture. BACK

[180] The Farnese Captives, now at the Museo Nazionale in Naples. BACK

[181] The figure of a mourning Indian, on the right of Banks's monument to Sir Eyre Coote in Westminster Abbey. BACK

[182] Most of the Roman Forum was so buried until the nineteenth century. BACK

[183] The Colosseum. BACK

[184] One of multiple frescos now usually attributed to Masolino da Panicale, c. 1430. BACK

[185] I.e., attached. BACK

[186] Probably Giuseppe Vasi's Itinerario istruttivo di Roma, o sia Descrizione general della opere più insigni di Pittura, Scultura e Architettura (1763; French translation 1773). BACK

[187] Johann Joachim Winckelmann, 1717-1768, art historian, archeologist, author, and great advocate of classical sculpture. BACK

[188] Author's Note: each Side, form'd of a treble row of Columns the Middle row admits of Carriages there are 96 Statues of Saints 46 feet high on the Top BACK

[189] Author's Note: Bramante told the Pope he would put the Pantheon on Columns for him — he plan'd the Dome as large but it fail'd in the beauty of its form — the fault of Michael Angelo who design'd it BACK

[190] The Navicella mosaic. BACK

[191] The Pietà. BACK

[192] The Sibyl offered Tarquin nine (or in some versions three) prophetic books, which he declined. She burned three books and offered the remaining six at the same price. When he declined again, she burned another three and offered the last three at the original price, which Tarquin hastily paid. See, e.g., Pliny, Natural History 13.27; Doinys. 4.62, Varro, ap. Lactant 1.6. BACK

[193] A toise is just under two meters. BACK

[194] Author's Note: we met with much civility being Forestiere [foreigners] BACK

[195] The Sarcophagus of Helena. A second Constantinian porphyry sarcophagus was added in 1790 (Wilton and Bignamini 243). BACK

[196] This courtyard was commissioned in the early sixteenth century to house the most famous pieces of sculpture in the Vatican collection (Wilton and Bignamini, 248-9). The basin was later moved. The Belvedere Antinous, probably a copy of a Greek original, was identified as a Hermes in the early nineteenth century. Commodus as Hercules is a Roman copy. Laocoön is attributed, by Pliny in The Natural History 4.4, to Athenodorus, Agesander, and Polydorus, all of Rhodes. Laocoön counseled against bringing the Trojan horse into the city, so was destroyed by serpents sent by the gods. BACK

[197] A Roman copy, probably of a Greek bronze by Leochares. Among the works that Flaxman goes on to mention are the Greek Belvedere Torso signed by "Apollonius son of Nestor," the gallery now called the Stanza degli Animali from the animal scupltures, and a number of Roman copies of Greek sculptures: the Nile and the Tiber; Cleopatra, now more often called Sleeping Ariadne or Sleeping Nymph; a Crouching Venus; the Faun in Rosso Antico from Hadrian's Villa; an Apollo Citharoedos; an Apollo Sauroctonos; and the full-length statues called the Tiburtine Muses, excavated as recently as 1774 (Wilton and Bignamini, 284). The floor of the Sala Rotonda was altered in 1792; Flaxman may be referring to black and white mosaics of sea creatures from Orticoli and from Petra Pertusa, Via Flaminia, or to a polychrome mosaic from Orticoli (Wilton and Bignamini, 243). BACK

[198] A wealthy magistrate who commissioned a tomb for himself. BACK

[199] The actress Elizabeth Younge Pope, with whom Flaxwood had become acquainted in the early 1780s. BACK

[200] Colonel John Campbell, British antiquarian, 1755-1821. John Flaxman wrote in 1788 that Campbell had amassed a collection of 300 Etruscan vases, as well as pictures, plaster casts, carved gemstones, and other antiquities (Ingamells 178). BACK

[201] Now believed to be just a stadium-shaped garden or a saddle between two shallow valleys, rather than a Roman circus (Hartswick 63). BACK

[202] The Palatine Hill's series of interconnected palaces from different eras, many not yet excavated in Flaxman's time. BACK

[203] Author's Note: Augustus born here the ruins of Otho's Palace about a mile off — we follow'd the new Road through the marshes — leaving Piperno & the moats on our left BACK

[204] Author's Note: not even a thatch'd hut BACK

[205] Author's Note: The Capitol of the ancient Volsci — its ancient name Anxur BACK

[206] Author's Note: built on the ruins of Temple of Jupiter anxurus mention'd by Virgil over the Gateway of the Town is the head of Mustrilly a famous Robber of those parts — the peasants of Terricina cross their Legs [. . .] BACK

[207] Appius Claudius Caecus, censor and later consul, responsible for the Appian Way (begun 312 BCE) and Rome's first aqueduct. BACK

[208] King of the Ostragoths, Theodoric ruled Italy from 493-526. BACK

[209] Author's Note: the air is so bad that the Innkeeper retires elsewhere for the summer BACK

[210] Author's Note: abounding with orange groves vineyards &, &c BACK

[211] Author's Note: pass'd Itria a dirty little place — as ever I saw — the women hair of Gaeta Plaited interwoven with Ribbons petticoats & Stays — BACK

[212] Author's Note: like the Brodekins of the ancients, shin held round with a Cord BACK

[213] Author's Note: a new laid Egg turn'd into milk — BACK

[214] See Flaxman's letter to her father, 16 March 1788: "chimneys are not very common and in houses where these are not, they burn a kind of charcoal in a large brass pan or dish which is rais'd from the ground about a foot by an iron frame with legs" (qtd. in Houpt 152). BACK

[215] Author's Note: 3 rows of seats, 64 arcades Including 4 Doors of entrance BACK

[216] Author's Note: Robt Guiscard Duke of Normandy encamp'd here & nam'd it thus because being situate between Capua & Naples it serv'd to keep both these cities in awe — Tancred was his grandson BACK

[217] Author's Note: Wed[nes]d[a]y 16th BACK

[218] Flaxman borrows part of her commentary on Naples from volume 8 of Joseph Lalande, Voyage en Italie, occasionally translating almost word-for-word. The following material comes from Lalande: the number and nature of beggars; much of the information on churches, including the stories about Nero, Seneca, St. Peter, and Conradin; the legend of the bronze horse; names of famous Neopolitans; customs concerning women and polite behavior (although the comment on English women's freedom is Flaxman's); the comment about superficial devotion; and the references to good music, the lack of indoor fires, and half-naked children. (In choosing what to borrow, Flaxman omits such topics as prostitution, venereal disease, and castrati.) BACK

[219] Author's Note: for this reason the horses in general have no hind shoes & many People have no Iron hoops round their Chariot wheels — it is forbidden to have any round the wheels of luggage carts — that work in the City — BACK

[220] Author's Note: almost every carriage has 3 & sometimes 4 footmen behind it & 2 or 3 or more Volantes flying before the horses — all shabby indeed hir'd for the time perhaps at 6 pence a head — ragged & dirty to a degre[e] even the volantes of the Queen were such shabby wretches as made me stare — but sometimes we saw a smart fellow — no that was at Rome BACK

[221] Duomo di San Gennaro BACK

[222] Author's Note: This Chapel & Cupola is by Lanfranc [Lanfranco] — Dominiquin [Domenichino] begun it & was poison'd by the Jealous Neapolitan artists — Guido & other Painters had refus'd to undertake the work for fear of meeting with this fate, the work of Dominquin was all destroy'd but the Angles [angels] — BACK

[223] Joseph de Lalande, author of several detailed travel guides to Italy. See the Introduction for more on Flaxman's use of Lalande. BACK

[224] The Farnese Heracles, a second-century CE Roman copy, signed by Glycon, of a Greek original attributed to Lysippus. BACK

[225] Lucius Mummius, Roman general who, after his brutal conquest of Corinth, famously demonstrated his ignorance of art by warning that if the shippers damaged any of the looted masterpieces he was sending back to Rome, they would be required to replace them. BACK

[226] The Farnese Bull, a third-century copy of a Greek sculpture attributed by Pliny to Apollonius and his brother Tauriscus. The statue depicts Antiope's sons avenging their mother by tying their father's mistress to an enraged bull. BACK

[227] Maria Angela Ardingelli (1728-1825), physicist and mathematician, and the translator of Stephen Hale's Vegetable Staticks. Negri is untraced: "P. Negri, Barnabite" (possibly a confusion for Agostino Mario Negri) is mentioned by Lalande as the author of a commentary on Agostino Tornielli's Annales sacri et ex profanis præcipui ab orbe condito ad eumdem Christi Passione redemtum, but no connection to Herculaneum has been found (Voyage en Italie 6.371). Mollo, a (male) duke, was a famed improviser (Giuli 319), Flaxman gets her misspelling from Lalande. For Morelli see above. BACK

[228] Pietro Trapassi (1698-1782), known as Metastasio, poet and librettist. Paciselli has not been identified. BACK

[229] Author's Note: The performers are but few, those of the first rate make very free with & salute their acquaintance that are in the Boxes & the company in there [their] turn make as much noise as they like & are only silent when some favorite song is going to be sung — they love to ridicule the french nation — BACK

[230] Author's Note: the money at Naples is Ducats (of 10 & of 20 Carlins)[,] Carlins — or 10 grains [grana] — [...] grain Pieces &c — the grain is about a half penny & this is divided in 12 Cavalli [calli] — but strangers never trouble themselves with this coin — 30 Carlins is call'd an Uncia [oncia] [unattached note to p. 64v] BACK

[231] Author's Note: a quarrel happen'd between one of the workmen & our Conductor about money matters that rather frighten'd me, but a Soldier soon made his appearance & all was quiet — BACK

[232] The last line of John Gay's "The Turkey and the Ant." BACK

[233] Really in the Aeneid, book 6. BACK

[234] A slight misremembering of Scipio's last words rather than his epitaph: "Ungrateful fatherland, you will not have my bones." BACK

[235] Author's Note: Procida has been eaten up almost by the Rats BACK

[236] Paestum or Poseidonia, an ancient Greek colony, became an important tourist destination after its Doric temples were rediscovered in 1746. BACK

[237] Rossoli or rosoli: a liquor. BACK

[238] John Hawkins, British geologist and antiquarian, 1761-1841. BACK

[239] Sir William Hamilton, British antiquarian, volcanologist, and ambassador to Naples, 1731-1803. BACK

[240] Author's Note: we could get no milk with[out] sending to the governor for his permission for which piece of ceremony we had not time BACK

[241] Author's Note: Bernadino — sculptore BACK

[242] Author's Note: near 6 English Pounds instead of one — a specimen this of an Italian Conscience BACK

[243] Author's Note: Rome December 3d Tuesday BACK

[244] Giuseppe Vasi published ten books of etchings between 1747-61, along with a guidebook, a View of Rome, and others. The inserted page numbers that follow refer not to Vasi, but to Flaxman's own ms. BACK

[245] A resort town known for its "beautiful villas and prospects over to Rome and the sea" and much frequented by landscape painters (William Freeman, BL Add. Mss. 36249, f. 143, qtd. in Black, Italy, 51; Moore II.337). BACK

[246] Author's Note: the old man who carried our Trunk told us of the cheat when he heard the chaise gallop off — BACK

[247] Not identified. BACK

[248] Now in the Louvre. BACK

[249] Author's Note: one morning we rode to a neighboring village of about 50 houses and din'd a la Don Quixote & indeed Everything about the Inn Yard call'd to my remembrance that renown'd Hero & his Squire BACK

[250] Author's Note: here we met with some English Lads who were very glad to meet with their Country men but they seem'd to have almost lost their native language their Father keeps a school in Orange Street Leicester fields — BACK

[251] Author's Note: his blessing here is valid — not so in Rome BACK

[252] Author's Note: Sept 28 1788 BACK

[253] Author's Note: some of the Cardinals Servants came under our Widow at night with their Mandolene & treated us with a Serenade but I was too Ill to enjoy it — BACK

[254] Ingamells identifies this as the same person, "Mr Innes" the tailor, with whom Robert Scott records staying in Rome in May 1787. BACK

[255] Hugh Hamilton and his daughter, the Flaxmans' closest friends in Rome. BACK